THE PERSON — THE CAR SYSTEM — the technical and biological system consisting of the person (the operator or group of operators) and the car by means of a cut it carries out work. Understand set of the technical means used by the person in the course of activity as car. Range of the systems covered by a concept the system of people — the car (SPC) is very wide, from simple (type the worker — the machine) to the most complex industrial complexes.
The SChM technical means turn on, except the managed object (car), a complex of devices of the automatic control and management: the sensors giving signals of values of parameters of an object, an object of the labor and Wednesday, the actuation mechanisms, devices of protection and blocking, and also collecting, mathematical and logical information processing, devices providing interaction of the person and the equipment — operating consoles, means of display of information, etc. The general manager a link of SChM is the person knowing and understanding the purposes of activity capable to be guided and make decisions in difficult and unexpected circumstances, to perceive and generalize information provided in various forms.
Efficiency of SChM is provided with the solution of three main problems: distribution of functions on management between people and automatic devices (level of automation), approval of characteristics of these components, selection and training of operators.
At distribution of functions consider preferential opportunities of the person and automatic devices, features of their interaction, economic and social factors, reliability of systems and safety conditions of work of the person. In process of growth of level of automation the increasing number of operations, minor, tiresome for the person, is transferred to automatic machines that changes a role of the person in SChM. Behind it there are functions of programming of operation of automatic devices, adoptions of basic decisions and maintenance.
Approval of characteristics of the equipment and the person means providing psikhofiziol. comfort of people, i.e. creation of such conditions, at to-rykh operators do not feel appendages of the equipment and do not experience excessive exercise and mental stresses. Special attention is paid at the same time to optimization of an information flow * for the prevention of an overload of the operator bringing to to a stress (see), or the underload causing a dozing condition and decrease in attention. Power loadings during the use of control levers shall be at the same time limited and brought to admissible values. It is necessary to aim at creation of comfortable conditions for operators (configuration of a workplace, the review, a seat, a pose etc.) also.
Eventually by means of the listed actions the problem of optimization of functioning of SChM, i.e. search of such ratios in system is solved, to-rye provide the maximum labor productivity on condition of its full harmlessness for health of the person.
Efficiency of SChM significantly depends on readiness of personnel, on his prof. of suitability for work in SChM (see. Professional selection ). Training of working provides, along with about-slushivayiyem corresponding courses, and to practician for specially created exercise machines (see).
Bibliography: Introduction to ergonomics, under the editorship of V. P. Zinchenko, M., 1974; JI about - m B. F. Chelovek and the equipment, M., 1966; Meyster D. Ergonomic bases of development of complex systems, the lane with English, M., 1979; Monmollen M. The «person and car» systems, the lane with fr., M., 1973; Sheridan T. B. and Ferrell U. R. Systems of people car, the lane with English, M., 1980.
D. I. Ageykin.