CHEKHOV Anton Pavlovich

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

CHEKHOV Anton Pavlovich (1860 — 1904) is the great Russian writer, the doctor.

In 1884 ended medical f-t Moscow un-that. During student's practice and in the first years after the termination un-that worked in hospitals of the Zvenigorod County of the Moscow province. Its thesis on the subject «Medical Matter in Russia» was not complete. The literary activity it began in the late seventies as the author of feuilletons and short comic stories. But already in the early period of his creativity there were works got by deep understanding of mental anguish of the person («Oyster», «Melancholy», «Teacher», Vanka), and the stories narrating about a hard work of territorial doctors («Grief», «Fugitive», etc.).

In 1890 A. P. Chekhov undertook a trip on the island of Sakhalin where he made a population census and studied its incidence. It generalized results of this work in serious social and psychological and medico-statistical work — the book «Island of Sakhalin».

In the next years literary creativity took the increasing place in A. P. Chekhov's life, however it did not leave medical and public work. In the period of life in Melikhov he treated local peasants, servicing the site including 26 villages and

2 factories organized schools for country children, left to the provinces captured by hunger worked as the doctor during epidemic of cholera. The territorial meeting expressed gratitude to the doctor A. P. Chekhov for his disinterested and useful participation in fight against epidemic of cholera. In days of life in Yalta A. P. Chekhov participated in assistance to TB patients. It «The appeal

about the help to the needing tubercular patients» allowed to collect the considerable sum (40 thousand rubles). On these means and a personal contribution

of A. P. Chekhov (5 thousand rubles) in the Crimea the sanatorium Yauzlar for TB patients was constructed.

In the creativity A. P. Chekhov paid much attention to questions of medicine, its social and ethical problems. «Occupations medical sciences — A. P. Chekhov wrote — had serious influence on my literary activity; they considerably moved apart the field of my observations, the true price to-rykh for me as for the writer, the one can understand who the doctor». His heroes doctors (doctor Astrov from «Uncle Vanya», Smokes from «Fidget», doctors in stories «Flowers Overdue», «Ionych», «Story of the Senior Gardener», «Case from Practice», etc.) became classical images of the Russian literature. In a number of works A. P. Chekhov with exclusive skill described features of the sincere world of the sick person (Chamber No. 6, «Attack», «The black monk», «Three years», etc.).

A. P. Chekhov was held in huge respect of the medical public of Russia. It was close to many doctors — scientists and public figures — P. A. Arkhangelsky, P. I. Dyakonov, E. A. Osipov, P. I. Kurkin,

I. V. Popov, G. I. Rossolimo,

V. I. Yakovenko, etc. He took part in work of a number of congresses of territorial doctors of the Moscow province, actively promoted the edition of the scientific medical magazine «Hirurgiya». Shortly before death A. P. Chekhov stated a nakhmereniye to go to the Far East as the medical officer of the acting Russian of army.

A. P. Chekhov became world history as the great writer — the bright representative of the best realistic traditions of the Russian classics who exerted huge impact on development of the Russian and world literature — prose and the drama. At the same time he was engaged multilateral public and profession of a physician. In it genius, humanity, modesty and greatness of the Russian spirit, dedicated service to people were combined by the unembellished art truth.

Works A, P. Chekhov, the great Russian writer and the public figure, are the major contribution to a problem of a medical deontology and medical ethics.

A. P. Chekhov's museums are created in Taganrog, Moscow, Melikhov, Yalta.

A portrait see on an insert, Art. 304.

Bibliography: Berdnikov (.

P. Che hov, M., 1974; Yermilov V. V. Anton Pavlovich Chekhov, 1860 — 1904, M., 1951; Me ve E. B. Meditsina in creativity and A. P. Chekhov's life, Kiev, 1961, bibliogr.; P and p e r N y y 3. Page, A. P. Chekhov, M., 1960. E. B. Mev.