CHEARCO Jean (Charcot Jean Martin, 1825 — 1893) is the French neuropathologist, the member of National academy of medicine (1872) and the Parisian academy of Sciences (1883).
In 1848 ended medical f-t Parisian un-that and worked as the doctor. Since 1860 professor of neuropathology, and since 1872 and pathological anatomy medical f-that Parisian un-that. Along with 1862 managed department, and from 1882 to 1892 there was the head of neurologic clinic in hospital Salpetriyer.
The early period of scientific activity of Zh. Sharko was devoted to studying of tuberculosis, rheumatism, pneumonia, embolisms, etc. He began to deal with issues of neurology since 1862 in hospital Salpetriyer where gave the lectures attracting listeners from many countries of the world organized the pathoanatomical laboratory which enriched neurology with outstanding opening and performed a large number of works on studying of diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. Zh. Sharko described multiple sclerosis (see) as an independent disease, its manifestations and the erased forms, added data about a wedge, a picture of a disease of Parkinson (see. Trembling paralysis). It described arthropathies and spontaneous bone changes at tabes (see. Back tabes). Zh. Sharko for the first time described an amyotrophic side sclerosis (see), known also as Sharko's disease — Kozhevnikova. The significant contribution is made by it in studying of persuasive states (see), hysteria (see), and also in development of a method of hypnotherapy (see Hypnosis). The publication in 1867 by Zh. Sharko of «Lectures about diseases of old men and chronic diseases», in to-rykh it was pointed out great importance of special studying of diseases at persons of advanced and senile age and need of the organization of special BCs for their treatment, was a stage in development of geriatrics (see).
Zh. Sharko is recognized as the founder of the French school of neuropathologists (see Neuropathology). It developed the kliniko-anatomic direction in neuropathology.
In 1880 it founded Archives de neurologie magazine. Zh. Sharko was a member of a number of the French and foreign academies, scientific about-in and the honourable doctor of many high fur boots.
The name of Zh. Sharko carries the peninsula in Antarctica (it is called his son famous for the polar researcher). Soch.; Lecons sur les maladies des vieillards et les maladies chroniques, P., 1867; Legons sur les maladies du systeme nerveux faites a la Salpetriere, t. 1—3, P., 1872 — 1887;
Legons sur les localizations dans les maladies du cerveau et de la moelle 6piniere, P., 1876; Legons sur les maladies du foie des voies biliaires et des reins faites h. la Faculte de m^decine de Paris, P., 1877; Legons du mardi la Salpetriere, P., 1887 — 1888; Oeuvres completes, t. 1—9, P., 1888 — 1894.
Bibliography: Filimonov I. H.
Zh. M. Sharko's works and neurology of our time, Klin, medical, t. 3, No. 8-9, page 233, 1925; Horoshko V. K. Sharko's memories, in the same place, page 237; G u i 1 1 an i n G., J. - M. Charcot, 1825 — 1893, his life, his work, N. Y., 1959, bibliogr.
And. H. Filimonov.