CHARGING, morning hygienic exercises — performance of easy physical exercises in the morning after a dream for the purpose of more bystry transition to a condition of wakefulness. Systematic occupations 3. in combination with a hardening are an effective remedy of the general strengthening of health.
During sleep there comes the diffuse internal inhibition (I. P. Pavlov) proceeding with decrease in excitability of c. the N of page, in parallel occurs decrease in a metabolic cost, a metabolism, an urezheniye of pulse, breath, decrease in a muscle tone, etc. (see. Dream ). Duration of transition from a dream to wakefulness depends on the state of health, type of century of N of, age and other reasons. Task 3. — to raise the general tone of an organism, function of all systems and bodies, «to load with energy nerve centers» (I. M. Sechenov), to promote more bystry transition to vigorous activity. During 3. considerably the flow of the impulses going from receptors motive, vestibular, visual, acoustical and other analyzers that promotes activation and mobilization of work of cortical and subcrustal departments of c increases. N of page, to more bystry elimination of a condition of braking after a dream.
Under the influence of systematically carried out physical. exercises improves krovo-and the lymphokinesis, blood supply of a cardiac muscle, significantly accelerates a venous blood stream that promotes elimination of developments of stagnation after a dream; compensatory functions of cardiovascular system and an organism in general are improved. The excursion of a thorax, diaphragm increases, function of external respiration improves, gas exchange increases in lungs, saturation of an arterial blood oxygen, oxidation-reduction processes, tissue respiration etc. become more active. Endurance of muscles and sheaves to physical increases. to loadings, mobility in joints increases, the musculoskeletal system in general becomes stronger.
The complex of morning hygienic exercises usually consists of 10 — 15 exercises for all muscular groups (bending, extension, assignment, reduction, turns, roundabouts for hands, legs; inclinations forward, back, aside, rotations for a trunk, the head; walking, run, jumps; coordination exercises, flexibility, relaxation, corrective bearing, self-massage of the head, neck, hands, legs, waists, etc.). Exercises can be carried out from various initial positions (standing, sitting, in walking, lying, being on all fours, etc.), without the aid of gymnastic apparatus, and also with objects and the elementary gymnastic apparatus (a stick, dumbbells, a ball, etc.). Rate of performance 3. there has to be quiet, a breath full, free, without natuzhivaniye and delays. Usually in 3. enter special breathing exercises for rest after jumps, run, etc.
To carry out 3. follows till a breakfast in well aired room (air temperature indoors depends on degree of hardness of engaged), in the summer — in the open air; duration of occupations — 10 — 15 min. daily. The clothes for occupations shall be easy, not constraining movements (pants, an undershirt, a bathing suit); footwear — without heels. After 3. hydrotherapeutic procedures (washing, rubdown, douche, a shower, short-term bathing) with observance of methodical requirements are recommended hardenings (see).
Physical. loading is dosed by the number of exercises, their complexity, number of repetitions, speed, the number of breathing exercises, inclusion of exercises on relaxation, time of occupations etc.
The size of loading shall correspond to the state of health, physical. to development, degree of readiness, sex, age. In 3. for men (fig. 1) it is recommended to enter power exercises: with dumbbells, expanders, rubber bandage, with a moderate static stress. In 3. for women (fig. 2) include exercises on development of flexibility, strengthening of muscles of a prelum abdominale, a pelvic bottom. Elderly people (fig. 3) should avoid the power exercises and exercises which are carried out at bystry speed; it is reasonable to enter more widely breathing exercises, exercises on relaxation of muscles; the self-massage of the head, neck improving blood circulation in vessels of a brain is useful.
3. for children (fig. 4) shall consist of the all-developing exercises, exercises, corrective a bearing, the strengthening muscles of a back, a stomach, the arch of foot; the exercises aimed at the development of flexibility, coordination of movements, balances. For children of younger age 3. it is necessary to carry out in playful way, exercises shall have imitating character.
Consultation of the doctor is necessary for persons with deviations in the state of health before the occupations. Self-checking is important (overseeing by health, pulse rate, breath, it is powerful). During the carrying out 3. reaction of an organism (pulse, the ABP, etc.) shall have moderate character; reverting is usually noted after 3 — 5 min. rest. Slight muscular pains which can develop after the first days of occupations are normal reaction of an organism on physical. loading and usually in 2 — 3 days disappear.
Fig. 1. Approximate set of exercises of exercises for men: 1 — walking on site (20 — 30 sec.); 2 — lifting of hands with serial return to the initial position and simultaneous assignment of a leg back (3 — 4 times); 3 — serial waves of legs in the parties with a pripodnimaniye on socks and simultaneous assignment of hands to the opposite side from nominative of a hand in the parties, legs at shoulder length (6 — 8 times in each party); 4 — lifting of hands up with the subsequent squat and assignment of hands back (4 — 6 times); 5 — inclinations of a trunk in the parties with assignment of a leg towards an inclination and an institution of the hand of the same name for a back with return to nominative (3 — 6 times in each party); 6 — at widely placed legs inclinations of a trunk forward with simultaneous cultivation of hands in the parties and return to nominative (4 — 6 times); 7 — from nominative of a hand in the parties serial attacks by a leg aside with squat (4 — 6 times in each party); 8 — turns of a trunk in the parties with simultaneous raising of straight arms up and return to nominative (4 — 6 times); 9 — simultaneous assignments of a leg and hands in the parties with return to nominative (4 — 6 times); 10 — from nominative of squat, straightening legs, dostavany hands of a floor (6 — 8 times); 11 — lifting of hands up with simultaneous assignment of a leg back and the subsequent lowering and assignment of hands back with lifting of a leg forward (4 — 6 times each leg); 12 — a pripodnimaniye on tiptoe, hands up, inclinations of a trunk forward with a serial dostavaniye hands of fingers of heteronymic legs (6 — 8 times); 13 — change of position of the relaxed hands (6 — 8 times); 14 — jumps on site (20 — 30 sec.) with gradation on walking (10 — 20 sec.); 15 — a pripodnimaniye on tiptoe, cultivation of hands in the parties and free inclinations of a trunk forward, bending knees and crossing hands (3 — 4 times).
Fig. 2. Approximate set of exercises of exercises for women: 1 — walking on site (20 — 30 sec.); 2 — lifting of hands up and an inclination of a trunk forward with lowering of hands (3 — 4 times); 3 — lifting of hands up with simultaneous assignment serially legs back on a sock and the subsequent lowering and assignment of hands back with bending serially legs in knee and coxofemoral joints (4 — 6 times); 4 — inclinations of a trunk in the parties with simultaneous assignment of a leg towards an inclination and lifting of an opposite hand up, for the head from nominative of a leg together, hands on a belt (4 — 6 times in each party); 5 — inclinations of a trunk forward with a dostavaniye fingers of hands of opposite foot and simultaneous assignment of other hand back, up from nominative of a leg together, brushes on shoulders; 6 — sitting on a chair, a progibaniye with the elbows and the extended legs which are taken away back, then squat with the hands (4 — 6 times) which are taken away back; 7 — serial lifting of legs up, being on all fours, with their subsequent lowering and a dostavaniye a knee of an opposite hand (4 — 6 times each leg); 8 — cultivation and the data of legs lying on spin (4 — 6 times); 9 — lying on spin, the movements of legs imitating driving the bicycle (6 — 8 times); 10 — turns of a trunk with simultaneous assignment of a hand in the same party with the subsequent return to nominative to all fours (3 — 4 times each hand); 11 — transition to a sitting position from nominative lying with the legs bent in knees and the raised hands with a dostavaniye serially hands of opposite foot (4 — 6 times); 12 — lifting of hands with the fingers (3 — 4 times) bound in «lock»; 13 — jumps on site: legs in the parties — together (10 — 20 sec.); 14 — walking on site with gradual delay of speed (15 — 20 sec.); 15 — cultivation of hands in the parties with serial assignment of a direct leg back on a sock and return to nominative with the lowered hands and the cramped legs (3 — 4 times).
Fig. 3. Approximate set of exercises of exercises for elderly people: 1 — walking on site (20 — 30 sec.); 2 — serial lifting of a hand up with assignment of the leg of the same name back, on a sock with return to nominative, holding a back of a chair (3 — 4 times); 3 — holding a back of a chair, alternate rise on tiptoe with a rift on heels (6 — 8 times); 4 — holding a back of a chair, serial assignment of hands in the parties with simultaneous turn of the head in the same party (3 — 4 times in each party); 5 — serial attacks aside with transfer of weight of a body on the bent leg, holding a back of a chair (3 — 4 times in each party); 6 — costing serial lifting of legs on a chair from nominative, hands on a belt (3 — 4 times each leg); 7 — inclinations of a trunk forward with squat, holding a back of a chair (4 — 6 times); 8 — sitting on a chair, cultivation of hands in the parties with the subsequent reduction of brushes to a breast (3 — 4 times); 9 — inclinations of a trunk in the parties, sitting on a chair (3 — 4 times in each party); 10 — sitting on a chair, lifting of hands with the subsequent alternate pulling up by hands of legs to a stomach up (3 — 4 times each leg); 11 — sitting on a chair, cultivation of hands in the parties with the subsequent inclinations of a trunk forward and an alternate contact with heteronymic hands of feet (5 — 6 times); 12 — sitting on a chair, assignment of elbows back, with a progibaniye of a trunk and the subsequent reduction of elbows forward (3 — 4 times); 13 — walking at quiet speed (20 — 30 sec.); 14 — rising on tiptoe, small assignment of hands in the parties with return to nominative (3 — 4 times).
Fig. 4. Approximate set of exercises of exercises for children: 1 — walking on site (20 — 30 sec.); 2 — a pripodnimaniye on tiptoe with simultaneous lifting of hands up and their subsequent crossing on a breast (3 — 4 times); z — serial inclinations aside with alternate sliding of a hand towards an inclination and up from the opposite side (4 — 5 times in each party); 4 — turns of a trunk with simultaneous cultivation of hands in the parties and the subsequent inclination of a trunk forward with freely hanging down hands (5 — 6 times); 5 — an institution of hands for the head with the subsequent squat and a pulling of hands forward (4 — 6 times); 6 — consecutive lifting and lowering of a stick in outstretched arms (3 — 4 times); 7 — walking about the room with the stick fixed behind the back by the hands bent in elbow joints (10 — 20 sec.); 8 — from nominative standing, straight arms hold a ball over the head, lowering of a ball with its subsequent blow about a floor before themselves and catching down; 9 — throwing of a ball up and its catching during walking (5 — 6 times); 10 — walking between toys (10 — 20 sec.) to watch a bearing; 11 — jumps on each leg alternately (10 — 15 sec.) with transition to walking; 12 — lifting of hands up and an inclination of a trunk forward with the subsequent rocking of the relaxed hands (3 — 4 times).
The note to fig. 1 — 4. The number of exercises specified in the text, number of their repetitions is approximate and can be respectively reduced or increased depending on physical fitness and the state of health. Not to hold the breath during execution of exercises. At assignment of hands in the parties, rise them up, extension of a trunk take a breath, at reduction of hands and legs to a trunk, inclinations of a trunk forward, in the parties — an exhalation.
See also Gymnastics .
Bibliography: Brown L. I. Gimnastik for persons of middle and advanced age, M., 1973; G. A. Gimnastik's Centaureas in a day regimen of school students, M., 1976; Minkh A. A. Sketches on hygiene of physical exercises and sport, M., 1976; Uvarova 3. Page of ides of river. Physical training of children of early and preschool age, M., 1963; Hristin V. I. Physical culture for workers of brainwork, M., 1966.
N. A. Gukasova.