CHAMOTTE and DINAS PRODUCTION, occupational health. Highway - dative — the industry producing the chamotte and Dinas refractory materials applied to lining of thermal units in ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, machine-building, chemical, power and other industries.
At all stages of fire-resistant production workers are affected by the major harmful production factor — dust (see), on a number of sites — the adverse microclimate (heating or cooling). A number of operations is connected with the manual skills demanding time of considerable physical efforts. In oven repartitions in small concentration sulfur dioxide gas and carbon monoxide are found; at production of tar-dolomite and tar-magnesite refractory materials — the resinous substances containing benz (and) pyrene, heat-insulating inserts — formaldehyde, etc. the Prof. pathology in the fire-resistant industry is a silicosis (see), other pneumoconiosis (see), a mechanic bronchitis (see).
Character and extent of harmful effect of dust on an organism depends on the structure and properties produced (or applied) refractory material or the rock serving as raw materials of fire-resistant production. The highest fibrogenny activity quartz and Dinas dust, dust of quartz glass, an aerosol silicon to - you, the containing over 90% of free silicon dioxide have. Moderate fibrogenny activity chamotte dust (18 — 30% free and apprx. 50% of the general silicon dioxide), chamotte and graphite, tar-dolomite, forsteritic dust, dust of clay and zirconium dioxide have. Treat malofibrogenny dust magnesite, chromomagnesite, containing apprx. 1% free and apprx. 1,5 — 4% of the general silicon dioxide.
Content of silicon dioxide is directly connected not only with incidence of workers of a silicosis, but also development hron significantly influences the frequency of complications its tuberculosis. mechanic bronchitis, and also general incidence of working.
The possibility of development of a pneumoconiosis can increase at a considerable physical tension, and also under the influence of inhalation of harmful gases and the cooling effect of air.
Preventive actions consist in transfer of the existing manufacturing techniques of silica and silica-alumina refractories into a «wet» way of preparation of burdening materials, transition to the automated drying and oven units with the subsequent automation of all operations — from renting of products from press before their laying on a platform of the furnace, and also in implementation of mechanical loading of products in the packaged look and in containers.
Use of individual protection equipment is important (see Respirators, Clothes special, Footwear). Performing preliminary and periodic medical examinations is obligatory (see. Medical examination).
For dust of various refractory materials and raw materials the following maximum allowable concentrations in air of a working zone are established: quartzite, dinas, quartz
glass, colloid solution silicon to - you and its mix with fused silica (on a solid residue) — 1 mg/m3, chamotte, shamotografit, smolodolo-Meath, mix of zircon with colloid solution silicon to - you (on a solid residue) — 2 mg/m3; clay, forsterite — 6 mg/m3; magnesite — 10 mg/m3. Bibliography: Topical issues of occupational health in ferrous metallurgy, under the editorship of
A. A. Kasparov and Yu. G. Shirokov, page 124, M., 1981; Questions of hygiene and professional pathology in nonferrous and ferrous metallurgy, under the editorship of S. G. Domnin, etc., page 78, M., 1979; L e m I with e in M. F. and d river. Results and perspectives of fight against a silicosis in production of a dinas and chamotte, the Gigabyte. work and the prof. having got sick., Jsfi 2, page 13, 1981; Professional cancer, under the editorship of L. M. Shabad, page 98, M., 1974.
M. F. Lemyasev.