CHALAZION (Greek chalazion a small knot, hardening, a hailstone) — a chronic productive inflammation of a cartilage around one or several meibomian glands.
Formation of chalazion is connected with obstruction of an output channel of the meibomian gland (see Eyelids) leading to its ectasia with the subsequent break of a secret in surrounding fabrics and development of the sacculated granuloma (see). Microscopically chalazion represents granulyatsionny fabric (see) with a large amount of epithelial and colossal cells (see) that gave a nek-eye to researchers the grounds mistakenly to treat it as display of tuberculosis.
In the beginning chalazion represents a small small knot in the thickness of a century, to-ry slowly increases and reaches in dia. 5 — 6 mm and more. Skin of a century over it rises, quite often the eyelid is a little deformed (fig.). At a palpation the dense painless education soldered to a cartilage of a century is defined; skin over it is easily displaced. The conjunctiva in the field of chalazion is raised, hyperemic, thickened. Further there can be a thinning and a perforation of a conjunctiva in the field of chalazion to allocation of contents from the softened its central part. However the ground mass of granulyatsionny fabric is not torn away and chalazion does not disappear, and only gradually decreases. In nek-ry cases of news agency the place of a perforation of a conjunctiva flat leaflike growths of granulyatsionny fabric — peculiar polyps can develop. Sometimes chalazion is opened not from a conjunctiva, and through skin, at the same time granulyatsionny fabric expands in hypodermic cellulose. It is long the chalazion existing nevskryvtiy-sya turns in thickly -
Fig. Chalazion of an upper eyelid.
a wall cyst with mucous contents.
HALKOZ of an EYE 477
From barley (see) chalazion differs hron. current, absence of suppuration and formation of granulyatsionny fabric. The differential diagnosis with an adenocarcinoma of meibomian gland is based on results gistol. researches.
Treatment of chalazion operational. After local anesthesia the eyelid is clamped a unit fenestrated forceps and turned out. The section of a conjunctiva is made perpendicular to edge of a century, and the section of skin if it is necessary, shall pass parallel to edge of a century. Chalazion is carefully emitted with the capsule, the cavity is greased with spirit solution of iodine. On a conjunctiva stitches are not put; on skin put 1 — 2 stitch. For an eyelid put disinfecting ointment; the compressing bandage is left for 1 days.
Bibliography: The multivolume guide to eye diseases, under the editorship of V. N. Arkhangelsky, t. 2, book 1, page 30, M., 1960,
t. 4, page 251, 1959; The Guide to eye surgery, under the editorship of M. L. Krasnov, page 39, M., 1976. V. S. Belyaev.