From Big Medical Encyclopedia

CENTER OF MASS DEFEATS — the territory, on a cut as a result of influence of weapons of mass destruction (nuclear, chemical, biological) there were mass defeats of people, damages and destructions of civil, industrial and defensive works (objects), damage and destruction of various material values.

Lakes of m of the item can arise in the territory of the country and on the battlefield. Depending on a type of the weapons of mass destruction used by the opponent and conditions of a situation the centers have the features. However they are characterized also by common features: mass character of losses and their emergence in rather short intervals of time (sometimes in one step); big sizes of the area; full (in some cases) or partial loss of operability of forces and means of medical service of troops (formations of medical service GO) and institutions of bodies of health care. In the territory of the country the sizes O. of m of the item and, therefore, size of losses in it are subject to considerable fluctuations and are defined generally by a type of weapon and way of its use, power and quantity of the applied ammunition, population density (troops) and extent of its protection, relief and meteorol, conditions, and also other factors. The sizes of O. Square of m of the item are extremely variable. E.g., the area of the center of defeat by the atomic bombs applied by SSh A in 1945 on the Japanese cities made in Hiroshima St. 24, in Nagasaki — 18, and number of the victims respectively 136 and 64 thousand people.

Extent of loss of efficiency of medical structure, medical and other medical institutions can also be considerable. In Hiroshima 90% of doctors were killed or wounded; from 45 city BCs only 3 could accept struck and render them medical aid. The area of the centers chemical and biol, defeats and size of losses in them can be also quite big.

The configuration of the center generally is defined by a type of weapon and way of its use, character of a land relief and vegetable cover, weather and other conditions of a situation. The form O. of m of the item nuclear weapon (the center of nuclear defeat) at air explosions is usually closer to a deckle-edged circle that depends on a land relief and a vegetable cover, the nature of building of the settlement and other factors (radius of the striking action increases along hollows, wide streets, towards areas with low wooden buildings, in the direction of wind and, on the contrary, it is less towards forests, hills, quarters of building by high buildings, etc.). At land nuclear explosion, besides, the strip of infection of the area with the radioactive material (RM) in the zone adjacent to the center of explosion, and in the direction of wind (a trace of a radioactive cloud) is created a cigar-shaped form. Radiation level on the area around explosion and on a trace of a radioactive cloud (see. Nuclear weapon ) can reach considerable sizes, especially near epicenter of explosion and on an axis of a trace. In process of increase in distance from the place of explosion and to the periphery from an axis of a trace this level gradually decreases.

Fig. 1. A view of the street of Hiroshima in 700 m from epicenter of explosion (above — before explosion, below — after explosion and cleaning of the street of fragments). The only escaped buildings (the lower photo, a background) — steel concrete houses of an aseismic design.
Fig. 2. A view of the destroyed two-storeyed brick building in 1,3 them from epicenter of explosion in Hiroshima.

In O. of m of the item nuclear weapon extensive destructions of land and underground constructions, formation of blockages (fig. 1, 2) and the fires are possible. The last, merging, form fiery storm (in Hiroshima the fire area made 11,5, i.e. nearly a half of all area of the center).

Weight of defeat of people in the center decreases in process of removal from epicenter of explosion in all directions. Allocate three zones of defeat: a zone of final fractures of buildings, adjacent to epicenter, and other constructions (basement parts of buildings can remain), death and extremely severe defeats of people; zone of strong destructions of buildings, crushing and moderately severe defeats of people; zone of weak destructions of buildings (hl. obr. window covers, doors, internal partitions, roof), moderately severe defeats of people easy less often.

Fig. 3. The deep burns of all body got from the light radiation of nuclear explosion in Hiroshima.
Fig. 4. The diagrammatic representation of radioactive infection of the area on a trace of the movement of a radioactive cloud: And — a zone of moderate infection; B — a zone of severe infection; In — a zone of dangerous infection.

The ground mass of the m of the item which were injured in O. nuclear weapon will have combined defeats by a shockwave and light radiation (fig. 3), and sometimes and a penetrating radiation. The isolated injuries, burns and radiation defeats will be more unusual occurrence. On a trace of a radioactive cloud (fig. 4) there are defeats of people ionizing radiation.

Lakes of m of the item chemical weapon (the centers of chemical infection) have the features caused by a type of OV applied by the opponent (see. Chemical weapon ), way of their use and other factors. Duration of infection of the area can be considerable if resistant OV are applied (yperite, a lewisite, sarin OV, etc.), and insignificant if unstable OV are applied (hydrocianic to - that, phosgene, etc.). In the areas infected with resistant OV it is accepted to allocate two zones. The first — a zone of primary infection — is formed at the expense of direct infection of the area, objects and air with drop and liquid OV and couples which are formed at the time of a rupture of chemical ammunition. In this zone of primary infection of OV air can be in the form of drops, vapors and fogs (aerosol). The second zone — a zone of secondary infection — arises at the expense of the shift of the air infected with toxic agents from the area of explosion of chemical ammunition in the direction of wind. OV in this zone are in a vaporous state. The secondary cloud of the infected air moves in the direction of wind to various distances depending on quantity of the applied OV, speeds of wind, relief, physical. - the OV chemical properties, etc. The second zone of infection considerably (by 3 — 4 times) surpasses the first in the sizes. Borders of a zone of infection of OV gradually extend in process of removal from the place of explosion of chemical ammunition. Weight of defeats in a zone of primary infection is several times higher, than in a zone of secondary infection.

Stay of people in a zone of primary infection is more dangerous, and work of medical structure (staff of formations of GO) in such center of chemical infection is much more complex, than in the second zone. The regions of infection resulting from use of unstable OV will have only one zone since because of a big volatility of these OV conditions for emergence of the second zone are practically absent.

The size of losses in O. of m of the item chemical weapon, their structure and time of emergence struck generally depend on physical. - the OV chemical properties, a way of their use and degree of protection of people. The greatest number of losses and the most severe defeats should be expected in the conditions of sudden massive use of high-speed highly toxic sarin OV in a zone of primary infection. Time of manifestation of defeats depends on properties and the OV type. Defeat of sarin OV, hydrocianic to - you are shown almost immediately after use of OV. Weight of defeats and number of struck decrease in process of increase in distance from a zone of primary infection.

In the center biol, infections after the expiration of an incubation interval can arise inf. diseases among staff of troops, the population, animal, and also defeats of page - x. plants. The sizes of the center depend on a type of the bacterial means applied by the opponent, scales and ways of their use, meteorol, conditions, a land relief and holding regime, anti-epidemic, protivoepi-zootichesky and disinfection actions. Borders of the center biol, infections are determined by data of the observation posts and special reconnaissance patrols and investigations are specified on the basis of results biol. Borders of the center can change as a result of movement inf. patients, migration of the infected carriers, distribution biol, aerosols air flows, etc.

O. the m of the item arising in troops in field conditions have a number of features: the number of the troops struck in the centers thanks to dispersal and obligatory existence of individual means of protection are much less, than in settlements; the centers are closer to the line of direct contact with the opponent, the they it is less both on the area, and on number of struck; accommodation of victims on the area depends on character of a disposition in fight, in a marching column on a march, in the area of concentration, etc. Besides, in fight the threat of occupation of O.'s territory by troops of the opponent of m of the item or additional fire influence of other types of weapon of the opponent can be created that interferes with carrying out rescue operations in the center.

The organization and holding actions in O. of m of the item on mitigation of consequences of use by the opponent of weapons of mass destruction in field conditions and in settlements depend on a number of factors, in particular on a type of the used weapon, conditions of a situation in the center and the area, adjacent to it (existence of infection of the area, ways of an entrance and evacuation, degree of operability of the remained medical and other institutions, etc.).

In field conditions small O. m of the item are liquidated by forces of affected divisions and parts of troops. At emergence of the large centers for carrying out rescue and urgent emergency recovery operations the special groups of mitigation of consequences (SGMC) incorporating divisions of engineering and chemical troops, medical and other services are created. Search of struck will be organized by divisions of group taking into account an arrangement of injured troops. The first medical aid struck in the centers yaderno go and chemical defeats appears as most and mutual assistance by staff of the divisions which were attacked and allocated for carrying out rescue operations and also medical staff of divisions. After rendering struck to the first medical aid focus to places where transport can approach. Evacuation is conducted on the next developed first-aid posts and to lay down. institutions.

Actions for elimination of the center biol, infections are held for the purpose of prevention of emergence and distribution inf. diseases in troops and their drift to the back of the country. After data acquisition about use by the opponent biol, weapon the commander of connection (part) establishes observation (see) with restriction of departure, entrance and transit through an infection focus, prohibition of export of property from it without preliminary disinfecting, and also restriction of contact with staff of the next divisions and local population. Before establishment of the look applied by the opponent IN are carried out: nonspecific emergency prevention; medical overseeing by staff for the purpose of early detection of the diseased, their isolation and hospitalization; the strengthened medical control of carrying out a dignity. - a gigabyte. actions. First-aid posts also to lay down. institutions, in to-rye evacuate struck, are transferred to a strict anti-epidemic duty. Evacuation struck and patients out of limits of the center stops. To the center (to the region of the center) anti-epidemic parts and institutions move forward. Sanitary cleaning of staff, disinfection of the territory of accommodation of troops, military equipment, military property, and also disinfecting of water and food will be organized. The medical service carries out specific indication of BO.

After establishment of a type of the applied bacterial funds for troops the quarantine can be imposed (see. Karantin, karantinization ) or the observation proceeds, edges it is, as a rule, supplemented with a number of specific preventive actions.

For performance rescue and emergency recovery operations in O. the m of the item in settlements create various formations of GO (rescue, emergency and technical, medical groups, groups of suppression of the fires, teams of disinfecting, etc.). Besides, groups of investigation, communication, protection of public order, etc. participate in work on mitigation of consequences of use by the opponent of weapons of mass destruction (see. Health service of civil protection ).

In the center of nuclear defeat carry out rescue and emergency recovery operations. Treat rescue: search struck, rendering the first medical aid to them, carrying out and export from the center; localization and elimination of the fires; extraction of people from blockages, the burning buildings which were smoke-filled and filled with gas of rooms, areas of flooding; cleansing of people and disinfecting of clothes. Treat emergency recovery operations: device of drives and release of roads, accident elimination of networks of utility and power economy, water supply system, sewerage, etc. Urgent emergency recovery operations first of all are carried out where accidents create threat of secondary defeat of people or prevent rescue operations.

Rescue operations are carried out by staff of formations, groups (teams) of an object of the national economy, formations of the next objects, and also the population (most and mutual assistance). In the subsequent rescue groups from the outside are entered into the center. For providing an order and successful work the center of nuclear defeat is divided into districts, to-rye, in turn, the last are divided into sites, and — into objects. The main efforts concentrate for work in the second zone in the beginning — crushing and moderately severe defeats since access to the feed zone where can be struck in shelters, at once after nuclear explosion will be impossible because of strong blockages, the fires and a high level of radiation.

Search of struck is carried out by rescue groups (teams) and staff of other formations, including and medical (groups of sanitary teams, sanitary teams). Sandruzhinniki work with links, couples or one by one. Their main objective — rendering the first medical aid. The carrying out of struck carries out staff of rescue divisions, and also the population which kept working capacity. Dignity. teams are engaged in carrying out in exceptional cases and on short distance. The first medical aid first of all is to children, pregnant women and tyazheloporazhenny.

If O. of m of the item small and group of first aid (see) it is developed near (1 — 2 km) from the places of accumulation struck, their carrying out is made directly in OPM. In the large centers near the main roads places of loading struck on transport from where they are evacuated in OPM developed at considerable distance from the center are defined.

For evacuation transport of formations of GO and OPM is used. The paramedical staff participates in the organization of evacuation, to-ry renders medical aid struck in points of their collecting and will organize loading on transport.

In the center of chemical infection hl work. obr. rescue medical formations and formations of disinfecting. Speed of rendering the first medical aid at defeats by high-speed OV, and also evacuation struck from the infected zone is of especially great importance. The carrying out of victims is made to not infected places or places where concentration of OV the smallest. OPM are located in not infected territory. The territories and all objects infected with resistant OV are subject to decontamination by forces and means of formations of GO, and people undergo sanitary cleaning (see. Cleansing , Special processing ).

On the sites infected with PB and OB, the staff of formations works in protective clothes. After end of a wrecking to O. the m of the item carries out the accounting of citizens, to-rye were affected by ionizing radiation, OV, and also to infection with radioactive materials, for the subsequent systematic overseeing by them for the purpose of early detection of struck.

Actions for elimination of the centers biol, infections are held in general as well as in troops. They are carried out by joint efforts of a number of services GO at the leading role of medical service. The medical service carries out biol. investigation (see. Medical investigation ) and specific indication of bacterial means; will organize the emergency and specific prevention; provides identification, hospitalization and treatment inf. patients, and also the corresponding duty to lay down. - professional, institutions; will organize disinfection, deratization and disinsection in the center; provides a dignity. - a gigabyte. control of catering services and water supply, etc. The medical service carries out singular problems at the organization and holding quarantine and observation actions.

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