CAUTERIZATIONS (cauterisatio, singular; synonym cauterization) — the medical manipulation consisting in drawing with the medical purpose of a local superficial burn or calling of deeper phenomena of a necrobiosis up to an escharosis, by means of heat, electrical, beam energy or chemicals.
Items are known from an extreme antiquity and were widely used at treatment of the poisoned and bullet wounds. Now P. are applied in surgery, traumatology, oncology, gynecology, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, dermatology, cosmetology and some other fields of medicine.
Most often P. apply to destruction of small warts, papillomas, polyps, condylomas; stops went. - kish. bleedings (ulcer, erosive, hemorrhoidal) and intraoperative bleedings (especially in deeply located centers, e.g. at brain operations, on bodies of a chest cavity, a basin, etc.); for elimination of excess (pathological) granulations, tattoo; divisions of fabrics, and also for the general irritating impact on an organism.
For P. use Paklen's devices (see. Thermocoagulation ), galvanocauteries (see), the UF-irradiator (see. Ultraviolet radiation, devices ), laser (see), an electroknife (see. Diathermocoagulation ), infrared contact coagulators. Diathermocoagulation and laser photocoagulation can be made in appropriate cases by means of the endoscope. For a himiokaustika use solutions of silver nitrate, copper sulfate and zinc, nitric, chromic, trichloroacetic and others to - you, sometimes alkalis (see. Caustics ).
The principle of sharp local warming up of fabrics which is the cornerstone of traditional P. is applied now more widely at various surgical manipulations: at oncological operations for increase in an ablastichnost (see. Tumours ); for division of fabrics, processing of a bone at its focal defeats; for the purpose of increase in an aseptichnost during the processing of a stump of hollow bodies (a worm-shaped shoot, a channel of a gall bladder, etc.); at synechias of an eye, an erosion of a neck of uterus. In all these cases use hl. obr. electroknife or laser scalpel. By means of thermocoagulation make crossing of commissures in a chest cavity (a so-called thoracocautery) in initial stages of a pulmonary tuberculosis.
Big achievement in ophthalmology is use of the laser at treatment of glaucoma (see. Laser , in treatment of glaucomas) and patol. processes in a retina of an eye, in particular amotio of a retina (see).
At P. bleedings, lengthening of terms of an angenesis, sometimes a recurrence of the tumors subjected to P. belong to complications. These complications more often happen are caused by disturbance of the technology of implementation of the Item.
P.'s results cannot unambiguously be estimated. Rather easily it is possible to liquidate single new growths, to achieve favorable healing of wounds after processing by their electroknife.
Bibliography: Gamaley N. F. Lasers in an experiment and clinic, M., 1972; Krasnov M. M. Laser microsurgery of an eye, Vestn. oftalm., No. 1, page 3, 1973; Liventsevn. M and Livenson A. R. Electromedical equipment, M., 1974; The Guide to physical therapy and physioprevention of children's diseases, under the editorship of A. N. Obrosov and T. V. Karachentseva, M., 1976; The Reference book on physical therapy, under the editorship of A. N. Obrosov, M., 1976.
M. A. Korendyasev.