CAUSTIC HEAT (potassium hydroxide, potassium hydrate, the caustic potash, GAME) — the crystal substance having properties of strong alkali, operating on fabric in a cauterizing and irritating way and being the reason of professional dermatitis, eczemas, etc.
E. to. represents crystals of white color with t ° pl 360 °, t ° kip 1320 °, density at 20 ° 2,04 g/cm 3 ; vigorously absorbs water vapors and carbon dioxide gas from air owing to what blurs and gradually turns into potassium carbonate. E. to. it is well dissolved in water, ethanol, glycerin. Dissolution in water is followed by considerable calorification and almost full dissociation on ions: The GAME -> To + + IT - .
Receive E. to. electrolysis of water solution of potassium chloride.
E. to. reacts with to-tami and acid oxides, forming salts of potassium; with solutions of salts of many metals E. to. forms the corresponding bases.
E. to. apply in soap manufacture, during the receiving some dyes and organic compounds, to production of alkaline accumulators, and also in oil, pulp-and-paper and other industries. E. to. it is widely applied as a reactant in laboratories, including clinical.
Action E. to. on skin and mucous membranes, first aid at their defeat and measures of the prevention — same, as at caustic soda (see).
Bibliography: Harmful substances in the industry, under the editorship of N. V. Lazarev, the p. 2, page 341, L., 1971; P e of m and G. Kurs of inorganic chemistry, the lane with it., t. 1, page 186, M., 1972.
V. P. Mishin.