CAUCASUS MINERALNYE VODY REGION (CAUCASUS MINERALNYE VODY REGION) — the group of resorts of Stavropol Krai combining the balneoklimatichesky resort of Kislovodsk, balneal, preferential drinking, the resorts of Yessentuki and Zheleznovodsk and balneogryazevy the resort of Pyatigorsk.
The Region of Caucasus Mineralnye Vody region is located in sowing. the foothills of Central Caucasus Mountains, near its main top of Elbrus. On Yu. and Yu.-Z. it is at the height of 2600 m, and on Page and C.-B. — 300 — 400 m above sea-level. The resorts of Caucasus Mineralnye Vody region are bordered by a snow chain of the Caucasus Mountains, in Kurortny district there are 17 separate mountains which slopes are covered with mixed forests. From the South and the southwest of Caucasus Mineralnye Vody region limit deep gorges in which the river Mulka and its inflows flows. In the central part of the district the river Podkumok with numerous inflows flows. It is above and to the south in mountains on gorges of the mountain small rivers Olkhovki and Beryozovka flowing into the river Podkumok it is located Kislovodsk (see) — at the height of 817 — 1062 m above sea-level. Further, Podkumok is lower on a current of river, at the height of 600 — 640 m above sea-level among the semi-steppe area are Yessentuki (see), even lower, at the height of 500 — 550 m above sea-level at the foot of the mountain Mashuk — Pyatigorsk (see), and in the narrow forest gorge to S. from Mount Beshtau on yuzh. to slopes of the mountain Iron — Zheleznovodsk (see) at the height of 610 — 630 m above sea-level.
All these resorts are connected among themselves not only territorially, but also a community of geological conditions of formation of their mineral springs and the general history of resort business. At the same time each resort has the features both on climatic conditions, and on structure to lay down. waters, as defined their various to lay down. profile.
Locals used Caucasian to lay down. waters for several centuries before they became known in Russia. In 1717 the physician-in-ordinary Peter I G. Shober for the first time gave the description of sources of Caucasus Mineralnye Vody region. In 1773 on the instructions of the Russian Academy of Sciences the doctor of medicine I. A. Gyuldenshtedt, and then in 1793: the naturalist P. S. Pallas quite in detail described the main mineral sources of Caucasus Mineralnye Vody region. In 1803 according to the petition of Medical board the Region of Caucasus Mineralnye Vody region was recognized as the area of the state value; this year is considered official date of opening of resorts. However because of epidemic of plague raging in the Caucasus the first official arrival of patients took place in 1808 — 1809. Further studying and development of Caucasus Mineralnye Vody region is connected with names of the famous domestic researchers G. V. Abikh, F. A. Batalin, F. P. Gaaz, A. P. Nelyubin, etc. Special value for development of Caucasus Mineralnye Vody region and domestic balneology had creation in 1863 in Pyatigorsk of Russian balneol. about-va under the leadership of the doctor S. A. Smirnov; in 60 years of the activity about-in laid the foundation for scientific research in balneology and a balneotherapy in our country.
In spite of the fact that the resorts of Caucasus Mineralnye Vody region exist St. 170 years, generally they developed and equipped with modern conveniences as one of the main resort districts of the country only in days of the Soviet power. 11/VII 1921 g signed by V. I. Lenina the following resolution SNK RSFSR was published: «For creation of conditions for a mass resort therapy in a month to release on Caucasus Mineralnye Vody region and other resorts of all-union value of the room and the building, suitable for the structure of sanatoria... and to transfer them to the jurisdiction of resort managements». By 1925 the largest buildings and sanatoria were converted, construction of new sanatoria began. Especially rough scope of construction in the resorts of Caucasus Mineralnye Vody region was noted in days of the first five-years periods when new sanatoria were constructed, bathing buildings and others to lay down. institutions. The number of places with 3012 in 1922 increased in sanatoria to 16 746 in 1940.
The big role in development of Caucasus Mineralnye Vody region was played by creation in 1920. Balneal in-that which under the leadership of A. N. Ogilvi, A. A. Lozinsky, A.S. Vishnevsky studied questions of an origin of mineral waters their action on an organism and developed techniques of their use. Huge work on development of the resorts of Caucasus Mineralnye Vody region was interrupted during the Great Patriotic War. The resorts of Caucasus Mineralnye Vody region considerably were damaged in 5 months of fascist occupation: sanatoria were destroyed and burned, the balneotekhnichesky economy is destroyed. Even before the termination of the Great Patriotic War bystry recovery of the resorts of Caucasus Mineralnye Vody region began. In 1975 in the resorts of Caucasus Mineralnye Vody region the St. 35 thousand sanatorium beds was developed, the St. 600 thousand patients is annually treated, from them 280 thousand are out-patient in specially organized all-resort policlinics.
The main natural to lay down. factors of the resorts of Caucasus Mineralnye Vody region are the curative climate, mineral waters, to lay down. dirt. Caucasus Mineralnye Vody region
became world-famous thanks to abundance various on structure and to lay down. to effect of mineral waters. In the territory of the small Region of Caucasus Mineralnye Vody region (60 km in length and 30 km width) it is reconnoitered and more than 100 sources of twelve types of mineral waters, various by origin are used, to structure and to lay down. to properties. Natural escapings of a subsoil of the earth of the majority of the operated mineral sources are located by groups, as laid the foundation for four resorts of Caucasus Mineralnye Vody region. Conditionally allocate the following fields of mineral waters: Kislovodsk (with Berezovsky, Olkhovsky and Podkumsky sites), Yessentuki, Pyatigorsk, Zheleznovodsk, Lysogorsky, Kumagorsky, Kumsky and Nagutsky. Between certain fields there is a close genetic linkage and interdependence. Stocks of mineral waters — St. 10 000 m3/d. Among them there are widely known carbonic, hydrocarbonate chloride sodium waters of type of Yessentuki (sources No. 4 and No. 17), thermal carbonic gidrokarbonatno-sulfate natriyevokaltsiyevy waters like smirnovsky and slavyanovsky in Zheleznovodsk, narzana of Kislovodsk, radon waters of Pyatigorsk. The main reserve for development of Caucasus Mineralnye Vody region are again reconnoitered fields of Nagutsky thermal carbonic hydrocarbonate chloride sodium waters of type of Yessentuki No. 17 and thermal hydrocarbonate sodium waters.
Near Caucasus Mineralnye Vody region there is a Lake Tambukan with curative dirt, edges is applied in all resorts of Caucasus Mineralnye Vody region. The scientific management to lay down. - professional, work in the resorts of Caucasus Mineralnye Vody region carries out Pyatigorsk research in-t of balneology and physical therapy.
The characteristic natural to lay down. factors, the indication to treatment — see articles devoted to the resorts of Caucasus Mineralnye Vody region — Yessentuki , Zheleznovodsk , Kislovodsk , Pyatigorsk .
Bibliography: Mud cure in resorts Caucasus Mineralnye Vody region, under the editorship of A.S. Vishnevsky, M., 1969; Caucasus Mineralnye Vody region, under the editorship of V. V. Ivanov, M., 1972; Medicinal mineral waters, under the editorship of E. A. Smirnov-Kamensk, Pyatigorsk, 1971; Panteleev I. Ya. Sketch of history of studying and development of Caucasus Mineralnye Vody region, M., 1955.
E. A. Smirnov-Kamensk.