From Big Medical Encyclopedia

CATHETERIZATION (Greek katheter the probe) — introduction of catheters to cavities of various bodies, circulatory and absorbent vessels with the medical and diagnostic purposes. In some cases To. pursues the same aims, as drainage (see) and sounding (See).

To. — surgical manipulation, edges shall be carried out with the most strict observance of rules of an asepsis and antiseptics.

A long time the term «catheterization» belonged only to such manipulations at which catheters (see) were entered into a cavity of body via the channels opening outside, e.g. To. a bladder and ureters through an urethra (see. Catheterization of uric ways ), To. an acoustical (eustachian) pipe through a nasal cavity for blowing off of a tympanic cavity (see. Ear inflation ), To. a trachea and bronchial tubes through a nasopharynx for inhalation and instillation to lay down. and contrast agents (see. Bronchial tubes, surgical treatment ). Over time the concept «catheterization» considerably extended since became possible to carry out catheters to vessels, cavities and members of the body which channels open in hardly accessible zones or have no message with the environment at all. So, in time duodenoskopiya (see) it is possible to enter through an opening of a big nipple of a duodenum (fater of pacifiers) a special catheter into the general bilious canal or into a pancreat duct (virzung a channel), in time hysteroscopies (see) to carry out a catheter to uterine tubes, to enter the «rummaging» catheter into an abdominal cavity in the way laparocentesis (see).

Due to the development of cardiovascular surgery was of particular importance To. blood vessels and heart (see. Catheterization of veins puncture , Catheterization of heart ).

Introduction of catheters to the main veins and arteries for diagnostic (arteriography, a flebografiya) and to lay down. the purposes (injections, infusional therapy) it can be carried out by arterial section, venosektion (see) or method of a transdermal puncture. The look and character of the catheters entered into a vein or an artery is various and depends on the purposes, with to-rymi their K. Ispolzuya special catheters is undertaken and carrying out them on veins, it is possible to carry out To. venas cava and their inflows, right departments of heart and pulmonary artery; at introduction of catheters through arteries it is possible To. aorta and its branches, and also left departments of heart.

With the medical purposes carry out To. a chest channel (see. Catheterization of a chest channel ) at pancreatonecroses, cirrhosis and jaundices, acute peritonitis, To. peridural space for performing anesthesia during operations, in the postoperative period and at the oncological patients suffering I do not stop - shchimisya......

Complications at To. can be caused by violations of the rules of an asepsis, equipment K., duration of stay of a catheter and some other reasons.

V. M. Buyanov.