CATGUT (English. catgut) — the suture material having ability to resolve in fabrics of live organisms.
To. it is made of a muscular layer and a submucosa of small bowels of sheep. A process of manufacture To. it is put and includes more than 10 operations. The raw materials arriving from meat-processing plants (dry or mokrosoleny) are subjected to processing by solution of potash, numerous machining by scrapers, cut on tapes, bleached in solution pergidrolya and caustic soda and twisted in thread. Threads after fumigating by sulfur dioxide gas rinse in weak solution acetic to - you, dry, polish, calibrate on thickness, degrease gasoline or ether, will sterilize chemical reagents, is more often iodine, and, having twisted in «bays», pack.
To. make 9 numbers (from 000 to 6): thin from No. 000 to No. 2 (use generally for an alloying of the small bleeding vessels), average No. 3 — 4 (for submersible seams of soft tissues and bodies) and thick No. 5 — 6 (for rapprochement of edges, binding of fragments of bones, sewing together of large muscles, fastion, etc.). Than thickness thread K., the more its resistance on a gap.
The term of a rassasyvaniye To. in fabrics depends on its thickness (number), a condition of fabrics in the field of a seam (suppuration leads to acceleration of a rassasyvaniye), a way of its sterilization, medicines and procedures applied locally (proteolytic enzymes and physiotherapeutic procedures considerably accelerate a rassasyvaniye), and also on some other factors.
Catgut threads cause a moderate aseptic inflammation of surrounding soft tissues. The expressed ability to cause a sensitization of an organism To. does not possess, however threads K., impregnirovanny iodine in the course of sterilization, can at an idiosyncrasy to iodine cause sharp inflammatory reaction in patients and even a local necrosis of fabrics.
Extreme contamination of the feed stock going for production To., causes impurity of the produced threads, despite difficult and their multi-phase sterilization in a process of manufacture. Most often from To. fungi are sown, however also pathogenic bacteriums among which the greatest danger is constituted by spore-forming causative agents of tetanus, a malignant anthrax and mephitic gangrene meet.
A protein basis To. complicates its sterilization since thermal ways (boiling, processing by dry heat, sterilization in the autoclave a pressured steam) destroy thread therefore the catgut will be sterilized either processing by chemical antiseptic agents, or gamma irradiation.
Beam sterilization To. by gamma radiation it is applied at on a centralized basis the sterilization of ready threads K organized in special laboratories., packed in packagings, hermetic, impenetrable for bacteria, from the polymeric materials steady against influence of radoactive radiation. This method of sterilization To. it is most convenient and full. It almost does not reduce durability of thread, is highly productive and by the arranged production is cheap.
Sterilization To. by method of processing by chemical antiseptic agents it is applied as at on a centralized basis organized sterilization at the special enterprises, and by preparation it to use directly in the operating room. Low cost and availability of this method cause its broad use in spite of the fact that at storage in antiseptic solutions K. loses durability, and process of sterilization is rather long.
There are many ways of sterilization To. various antiseptic agents in the conditions of hospital (see. Suture material, sterilization ).
On a centralized basis ampoules with are issued To. various numbers in solution of an antiseptic agent. A shelf-life To. in the soldered ampoules up to three years.
In a wedge, practice can use To. with the slowed-down terms of a rassasyvaniye, for what thread K. in the course of production subject to formolation, metallize (chromeplate, gild), impregnate with various drugs.
Due to the emergence of the synthetic threads capable to resolve in fabrics, To. began to use much less often since the technology of preparation of synthetic threads is simpler and cheaper, than preparation To., and ways of sterilization guarantee them full sterility what it is difficult to achieve during the use To.
See also Suture material .
Bibliography: Bogdanov A. Catgut, its production and use, M., 1930; The Multivolume guide to surgery, under the editorship of B. V. Petrovsky, t. 1, page 172, M., 1962; V. I Pods. General surgery, page 67, M., 1978; D i d i n g N. Irradiation sterilization of pharmaceutical products, Acta pharm. suec., v. 12, suppl., p. 35, 1975; Holm N.W. a.Christen-sen E.A. Radiation sterilization background and prospects, ibid., p. 26.
B. A. Sugars.