CATAPLEXY (grech, kataplexis fear, horror, confusion; synonym: affective adynamia, emotional adynamy, affective loss of a muscle tone, blockade of a tone, Levenfeld's syndrome — Enneberg) — the short-term, pristupoobrazno coming loss of a muscle tone bringing in the expressed cases to falling of the patient without loss of consciousness, arising usually against the background of strong emotional reactions; a symptom of a narcolepsy — see. Narcolepsy .
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CATAPLEXY (cataplexia; grech, kataplexis fear, horror, confusion; synonym; affective adynamia, affektotoniya, emotional adynamy, affective loss of a muscle tone, blockade of a tone, Levenfeld's syndrome — Henneberg) — a condition of a sudden atonia, leading or to falling of the patient, or to weakness of separate muscular groups. It is for the first time described in 1880 by the fr. neuropathologist Zhelino (J. Century of E. Gelineau) as one of manifestations narcolepsies (see).
For a wedge, pictures attacks of a sudden atonia (the general or partial) and various vegetative frustration are in most cases characteristic (a miosis, weakening of a pupillary test, reddening and blanching of the person, a hyperhidrosis, delay of pulse and breath, a hyperthermia, a fever, etc.). The atonia in 2/3 cases happens partial, at the same time there is a ptosis, the head niknt, the trunk is bent, legs are turned in, the speech is violated, objects drop out of hands. The total loss of a muscle tone is followed by a full obezdvizhennost and is frequent falling. In most cases along with an atonia sudden backfilling — a narcolepsy is observed; quite often the atonia precedes an attack of backfilling. Also cases are described To., not followed by drowsiness. Consciousness during an attack To. it is usually kept.
An attack To., as a rule, arises in connection with sharp affective reaction — positive (laughter, delight, pleasure) or negative (anger, nervousness, offense). The attack lasts from several seconds to 2 — 3 min., occasionally up to 10 — 15 min. Frequency of attacks is various — from several in a month to tens and hundreds of times a day. R. A. Tkachyov (1948) described cases of a series of attacks To., the following one by one — the cataplectic status.
It is sometimes observed To. awakenings or To. backfillings, edges it is expressed in short-term impossibility to make any movements, to cry at sudden awakening or during the backfilling. The last option, and also emergence of the similar phenomena are called during sleep a decubitus paralitis.
Etiology To. it is connected with the remote effects of organic lesions of c. and. page (infections, injuries), and also, perhaps, with hereditary predisposition.
In pathogeny To. diencephalic disturbances matter. Pathophysiological mechanism K. according to I. P. Pavlov's theory braking of a motor analyzer of a cerebral cortex is.
Diagnosis To. is based on existence of attacks of an atonia at preservation of consciousness. Differential diagnosis is carried out with epilepsy (see), at a cut paroxysms, as a rule, are followed by a loss of consciousness, and also with cataplectic states at a narcolepsy and the rare kataplektopodobny disturbances connected with affect of fear at bad attacks schizophrenia (see).
Treatment and prevention same, as at narcolepsies (see).
Forecast for life favorable.
Bibliography: Vane A. M. Gipersomnichesky syndrome, page 25, M., 1966; it, Sleep disorders and wakefulnesses, page 157, M., 1974; Karapetyan E. A. Clinic and treatment of a narcolepsy, page 26, L., 1973; Tkachyov R. A. Cataplexies, Saturday. nauch. works, it is devoted. to the 70 anniversary of the prof. E. K. Sepp, under the editorship of N. V. Konovalov, etc., page 185, M., 1948; Schaefer D. G. Hypothalamic (diencephalic) syndromes, page 182, M., 1971; Na-g e 1 K. Die Narkolepsie (Morbus Gelineau), Fortschr. Neurol. Psychiat., S. 75, 1980, Bibliogr.; Proceedings of the First Internationa] symposium on narcolepsy, ed. by Chr. Guilleminault a. o., N. Y., 1976, bibliogr. V. V. Kovalyov.