From Big Medical Encyclopedia

CARRYING OUT AND EXPORT OF STRUCK — organized transportation struck from the place where defeat, to a post of a medical ambulance or to the next stage of medical evacuation is received. Century and accusative — an initial and most difficult element of medical evacuation (see. Evacuation medical ). Timely carrying out (export) struck from the battlefield and the centers mass a dignity. losses provides early rendering necessary medical aid and protection against repeated defeats. N. I. Pirogov fairly considered that the most important sign of perfection in a field sanitary system is a bystry, careful and timely cleaning of wounded from the battlefield.

The first elements of the organization of carrying out and evacuation of wounded from the battlefield belong to an extreme antiquity. During the 2nd Punic war (218 — 201 BC) at each legion the «weak-willed» team, on to-ruyu, except other duties was formed, cleaning of wounded from the field of battle was assigned. Further, until the end of 18 century, in armies of various states B. and accusative from fields of battles it was carried out, as a rule, after fight by the divisions (teams) allocated from troops. In armed forces of France in 1793 regular divisions for carrying out and evacuation of wounded from the battlefield were for the first time created. In Patriotic war of 1812 the carrying out of wounded from the battlefield in the Russian army was assigned to military police. In 1851 in Russia the decision on creation of the «field hospital companies» (180 privates-porters, 50 paramedics, 23 front officer and the corporal, 2 buglers, 4 doctors and povozochny) intended for search of wounded in the battlefield, carrying out and export them on dressing points was made. However in war of 1853 — 1856 regular porters in the Russian army were not yet; at defense of Sevastopol against fighting positions to the advanced dressing points of wounded soldiers took out, and is farther than them to the main dressing points brought the teams of porters allocated from front divisions. At «The beginnings of the general field surgery» of N. I. Pirogov proved need of creation of regular teams of porters and their special preparation under the leadership of the doctor. In the Russian-Turkish war of 1877 — 1878 these proposals of N. I. Pirogov were partially realized. However in spite of the fact that in a division for the period of fight 680 porters had to be allocated (120 in each regiment and 200 in divisional infirmary), necessary improvement of carrying out and evacuation of wounded from the battlefield did not happen. This results from the fact that regimental porters appointed front soldiers only before battle, they had no necessary preparation, and the management them was organized by work badly. A considerable part of porters was used on dressing points.

During the Russian-Japanese war of 1904 — 1905 and world war of 1914 — 1918 in the Russian army the carrying out of wounded was carried out, as a rule, to time of interfighting pauses; regimental and divisional porters took out wounded to the advanced (regimental) dressing points, and is frequent because of a lack of transport and on the main (divisional) dressing points.

According to «The guide to sanitary evacuation in RKKA» (1929) and to «The charter of military public health service of RKKA» (1933) the carrying out of wounded was supposed to be carried out «at emergence of a favorable opportunity». Only after fighting near the lake Hassan, river Halkhin-Gol and the Soviet-Finnish conflict the requirement of continuous carrying out of wounded from the battlefield realized at the beginning of the Great Patriotic War was established. For improvement of work on rendering the first medical aid by the wounded and to carrying out them from the battlefield the order of the People's Commissar of Defence of the USSR No. 281 of August 23, 1941 about an order of representation to government award of military hospital attendants and porters for carrying out of wounded from the battlefield with their weapon had huge value. Rescue by hospital attendants of wounded soldiers was equated by this order to manifestation of military valor, courage and bravery, worthy rewardings with awards and medals of the Soviet Union. Successful implementation of the requirement about continuous carrying out of wounded was promoted also by the fact that the Fighting charter of infantry of 1942 on commanders of front divisions and parts conferred responsibility for the organization of medical aid, V. and accusative from the battlefield. Divisions of medical service, using the regular and given forces and means, organized and carried out V. and accusative from the battlefield. Experience of war showed that chiefs of the IFV and commanders a dignity were direct organizers of V. and accusative from the battlefield, as a rule. departments of companies. V.'s order of willows accepted in the Soviet Armed Forces and comprehensively checked in severe years of the Great Patriotic War. the item from the battlefield was rather effective and keeps the value and today.

In the majority of operations of the Great Patriotic War in the first 2 hours after wound from 60 to 80% of wounded were brought to battalion first-aid posts that provided rendering timely medical aid to them at stages of medical evacuation.

Fig. 1. Straps for carrying out of struck: 1 — nosilochny; 2 — special.
Fig. 2. Export struck in the boat drag harrow.
Fig. 3. Ski nosilochnaya installation.

For V. and accusative use a nosilochny strap, a strap special (Sh-4 was called earlier), stretchers (see), court shoes drag harrow, ski nosilochnye installations and other devices. The Nosilochny strap is a tarpaulin belt 360 cm long, 6,5 cm wide with a metal buckle on one of the ends; at distance of 100 cm from a buckle the tarpaulin slip is sewn to a strap, edges allows to put a strap the eight (fig. 1, 1). The strap special has carbines on both ends; on a strap two metal rings (for fastening of carbines), a special buckle and a tarpaulin slip (fig. 1, 2) are strengthened. By means of this strap it is possible to remove wounded from hard-to-reach spots, to transfer on spin and on a stretcher. In the winter in the lesistobolotisty area for V. and accusative use court shoes drag harrow and ski nosilochnye installations (fig. 2 and 3). Length of the boat drag harrow of 230 cm, width of 60 cm, height of 20 cm of Lyzhnonosilochnaya installation consists of two skis connected ahead by the arc-shaped cross-piece, to the Crimea the basic frame for installation a dignity is attached. stretcher. Ski nosilochnuyu hospital attendants transport installation independently or by means of dogs. In the Great Patriotic War for evacuation of wounded from the battlefield the hl was used. obr. animal-drawn medical ambulance (see). In modern conditions for export of struck are available wheel and caterpillar a dignity. conveyors and dignity. cars. Also armored personnel carriers and fighting vehicles can be used to these purposes (see. Motor medical ambulance ).

Fig. 4. Ottaskivaniye struck on one side.
Fig. 5. Carrying out struck by means of a special strap (it is designated in black color).
Fig. 6. Carrying out struck on the improvised stretcher.

The carrying out and export are preceded by search struck (see. Search and collecting struck ), and in some cases their extraction from fighting vehicles. From the tank of struck take by means of various devices (zone belts, nosilochny straps, etc.), but it is more convenient to do it by means of a special strap. At fire influence of the opponent hospital attendants take out (fig. 4) struck, as a rule, to the next shelter on one side, on spin or with use of the elementary devices (fig. 5); two hospital attendants can take out struck on hands. The carrying out on the sanitary or improvised stretcher (fig. 6) is made by the nosilochny link consisting from 2 — 4 persons. Average speed of the movement of a nosilochny link with struck on the flat area — 2 — 2,5 km/h.

Fig. 7. Some ways of designation of the locations struck.

V.'s order and accusative depends on a fighting and medical situation, existence of forces and means intended for this purpose. In the offensive combat which is conducted in a speshenny system, company a dignity. instructors and hospital attendants follow in fighting orders of the divisions, search for struck, render them the first medical aid, if necessary drag to the next shelter (as a rule, 5 — 10 m are not farther). The locations of struck are designated by well noticeable signs (fig. 7); alarm means, and at night — luminescent signs can be applied to this purpose also by radio. Hospital attendants of the IFV and a regimental first-aid post move ahead behind divisions on a dignity. cars and conveyors, if necessary render the first medical aid, load struck in the conveyor and take out on the IFV or on an axis of the movement IFV. Here places of concentration struck are created («nests» of wounded), from to-rykh them deliver a dignity to a regimental first-aid post. cars. At impossibility of approach a dignity. the conveyors struck take out (take out) with use of make-shifts to in advance appointed places of posts a dignity. transport (VST). If divisions conduct a battle by fighting vehicles, then boundaries of disembarkation struck from fighting vehicles are appointed in advance. Depending on a situation further struck are focused on a route of the movement IFV or delivered directly to a regimental first-aid post.

In defensive action of struck take out a dignity to places of approach. transport on the trenches, the courses of the message, sites of the area which are not looked through by the opponent. If the shoulder of carrying out is considerable (more than 600 m), then use a «relay» method of carrying out, at Krom links of hospital attendants-porters are placed through each 200 — 300 m. Each link transfers struck only to the next setup where transfers him together with a stretcher to the following link and, having received an empty stretcher, is returned to the place. Points of approach dignity. transport appoint perhaps closer to the defending divisions taking into account ensuring reserved export of struck. Expecting a possible break in carrying out (export) struck to the back, in companies equip company medical posts (RMP), in to-rykh it is possible to focus struck temporarily. At the organization of defense it is necessary to plan and designate beforehand V.'s ways and accusative, points of the parking a dignity. transport to broaden certain sites of trenches for ensuring the movement with a stretcher, to equip transitions through trenches (wide ditches) and escapings them.

Century and accusative from the centers mass a dignity. losses carry out specially allocated teams for mitigation of consequences of use by the opponent of means of mass defeat. Include general divisions, divisions of engineering, chemical troops and medical service in line-up. The staff of these teams carries out search and extraction struck from blockages, seats of fire, rendering the first medical aid to them, and also concentration of wounded in «nests». Export struck from the centers mass a dignity. losses on the nearby developed medical divisions and in hospital make a dignity. transport and transport of general purpose.

Century of willows. the item from the centers mass a dignity. the losses which arose in the city carries out staff of rescue groups, and also formations of services GO. After rendering struck to the first medical aid take out nosilochny links of rescue groups and deliver to places of loading to the motor transport or directly in groups of first aid (OPM).

If the situation does not allow to take out and deliver struck to the specified places, they can be focused on the temporary collection points for struck (TCPS). From here they are taken out (take out) and delivered in OPM or in remained to lay down. - professional, institutions as soon as possible. For the aid to rescue groups attract the unimpaired population to timely carrying out of struck. The carrying out of struck is carried out generally on a dignity. and the improvised stretcher, and export — by the trucks adapted for transportation struck.

See also Battalion medical aid station , Druzhina sanitary .

Bibliography: Military-medical preparation, under the editorship of D. D. Kuvshinsky, M., 1975; Experience of the Soviet medicine in the Great Patriotic War of 1941 — 1945, t. 1, M., 1951; Pies N. I. Collected works, t. 5, page 44, M., 1961, t. 7, page 83, 217, 269, etc., M., 1960; V. A. Organization's Fish owls of health service of civil protection, M., 1970.

G. P. Lobanov.