CARPET PRODUCTION — one of the industries of the textile industry. On a way of development of carpet products distinguish mechanical and manual production. Manual production is carried out on horizontal and vertical carpet looms, the main tekhnol. operations on which are carried out by the carpet-maker manually. At mechanical production automatic looms with more high efficiency of work are applied. Raw materials for production of carpets are rough and semi-rough wool, cotton, flax fiber, chemical fibers (shtapel, lavsan, capron, polypropylene, mtilon, etc.). The main tekhnol. processes To. items essentially do not differ from similar processes of textile production (see. Textile industry ). Weaving and finishing are more specific actually. It is connected with an originality of carpet products and use of the special production equipment.
The carpet loom and an osnovovyazalny Rachel machine are the large-size equipment. Their service is carried out by two workers — the weaver (knitter) and a shpulyarnitsa. Great value in To. finishing of carpet fabric (grading, cleaning, darning, etc.) and especially has the item dressing (see).
Processes of spinning and weaving are followed by such adverse factors as noise, vibration, dust formation.
The noise made during the operation of the spinning and weaver's equipment is broadband with a maximum of sound energy in the frequency range of 1000 — 8000 Hz. Noise level in workplaces can reach 90 — 98 dB.
In separate workplaces vibration is possible; levels of vibrospeed in a spinning room fluctuate from 98 to 108 dB in octava strips with compound frequencies of 63 — 250 Hz.
Concentration of dust in air in workplaces can reach 4 — 8 mg/m 3 . Woolen dust in mix with dust of synfils (capron, lavsan) can render irritant action on a mucous membrane of upper respiratory tracts.
Temperature and air humidity in rooms To. items are defined tekhnol. need. During a cold and transition period of year in a spinning room air temperature 22 — 25 °, in a weaving shed 20 — 23 °, during the warm period of year respectively 26 — 28 ° and 24 — 26 ° is allowed; relative humidity of air in a spinning room of 55 — 60%, in a weaving shed of 65 — 70%.
The size of potential of static electricity on working surfaces in a spinning weaving shed insignificant (0,03 — 1,9 kV).
By production of carpets sufficient illumination of working surfaces is of great importance. At one general lighting (spinning room) it shall be not less than 200 lx, at the combined lighting (weaving shed) — 500 — 700 lx.
Work of working main professions To. the item (spinners, weavers, knitters) is characterized by considerable number of the small manual operations which are carried out with the high speed, existence physical. efforts and static loads, tension of attention and sight. A number of manufacturing operations is carried out in inconvenient working poses: standing, with the hands extended forward at an inclination of a trunk or reclining, lying, squating. Work of working main professions To. the item can be referred to moderately severe category and tension.
Among workers To. items chances of diseases hron, bronchitis, bronchial asthma, are noted also relative deafness, neuritis, neurosises, ishioradikulita.
Prevention of profvrednost: noise reduction in the workshop by its reduction in sources of education, facing of walls and a ceiling sound-absorbing materials, uses of local noise absorbers; use of individual protection equipment from noise; reduction of harmful effects of vibration by use of anti-vibration materials; decrease in concentration of dust in air of workrooms by implementation of pneumo-cleaning; rationalization of a workplace and working pose; mechanization of heavy works; providing with the special footwear which is creating a convenient support for foot and having a good parovozdukhopronitsayemost; improvement of a work-rest schedule by introduction additional 5 — 10-minute breaks for carrying out special production gymnastics and self-massage, improvement of the organization of work of workers by introduction of a teamwork of equipment maintenance and mastering adjacent professions.
Workers of the main professions K.p. workers of the corresponding professions in other industries use the same privileges, as textile industry (see).
Bibliography: Ermakova B. M. Materials for studying of a dust factor in the combing workshop of the Minsk worsted plant, Zdravookhr. Belarus, No. 8, page 46, 1970; Ivanova I. S. and and y-voronsky A. P. Occupational diseases of a respiratory organs at working in contact with woolen dust, the Gigabyte. work and the prof. having got sick., No. 1, page 36, 1969; L at that in V. A., etc. Questions of occupational health in carpet production, the Gigabyte. and dignity., No. 2, page 97, 1970.
O. M. Maltseva, Yu. P. Paltsev.