From Big Medical Encyclopedia

CARBON SULPHUR (CS 2 ) — carbon compound with sulfur, a sulphurous analog of carbonic anhydride, belongs to industrial poisons, is flammable. The page is used as the extraction agent and solvent for many organic and nek-ry inorganic matters (fats, oils, pitches, phosphorus, sulfur, etc.), and also in organic synthesis, curing of rubber, in production of synthetic fabrics.

The page represents the colourless, strongly refracting light liquid, t°kip 46.26 °, t°pl — 112,1 °.

Pure S. has no off-flavor, however technical carbon sulfur is painted in yellow color and possesses strong, extraordinary off-flavor. The page mixes up with alcohol, ether, chloroform in any ratios, in water we will dissolve slightly. Owing to a low burning point of couple of S. can light up from contact even with slightly heated objects (apprx. 100 °) that demands during the work with it of big care. At S.'s combustion forms carbonic and sulphurous gases, at interaction with water (at a temperature St. 150 °) it is hydrolyzed to CO2 carbon dioxide gas and H2S hydrogen sulfide. Being thiocarbonic anhydride, S. reacts with various nucleophilic substances, forming derivatives thiocarbonic to - t. So, at effect of alkalis C. turns into salts dithiocarbonic (tiontiougolny) to - you, e.g.

with spirit alkalis or alcoholates CARBON SULPHUR forms salts so-called xanthogenic to - t (xanthogenates, salts of ether acids dithiocarbonic to - you):

with sulfides of alkali metals gives salts thiocarbonic (thiocarbonic) to - you — thiocarbonates: CS2 + K2S —> K2CS3; accession of ammonia to S. leads to formation of dithiocarbamate of ammonium SC(NH2)SNH4. At S.'s chlorination turns into tetrachloride carbon (see). At interaction with strong oxidizers of S. decays with allocation of elementary are gray (see).

Villages in the industry receive at high temperatures reaction of sulfur with carbon (750 — 1000 °) or methane (500 — 700 °).

For S.'s detection staining reactions, napr, reaction of transformation of S. into ammonium rhodanide (test with Fe3+), in potassium xanthogenate (emergence of coloring with salts of copper), reaction with aniline and caustic silver (emergence of black coloring), S.'s reaction with triethyl phosphine (emergence of red coloring) serve. Quantitatively S. in air define in a look dietilit also piperidyldithiocarbamate of copper of a fotokolorimetricheska (test-sensitivity of 0.5 mkg, interferes with definition presence of H2S).

Toxic action of S. has a talk its interaction in an organism with various nucleophilic groups (NH2-, SH-, ON-group-pami, etc.) proteins and other connections that leads to disturbances of metabolism and blocking of fermental systems, especially cupriferous enzymes — monoamine oxidase (see) and ceruloplasmin (see. Respiratory pigments , Blood ), the pyridoxaleft fermelt, etc.

Professional harm

S. possesses all-toxic action, strikes preferential c. the N of page, peripheral and the autonomic nervous system, influences generative and sexual functions, renders gonado-and embriotoksichesky action, promotes development of diseases of cardiovascular system, perverts effect of nek-ry pharmaceuticals as a result of disturbance of their biotransformation and change of sensitivity of the corresponding receptors.

Comes to a human body of S. with inhaled air, in insignificant degree — through skin. At hit liquid S. affects skin annoyingly. When its evaporation from the surface of skin is complicated (e.g., at flowing under rubber gloves), it causes bulging. At frequent hit of S. on skin it is degreased and shrivels. S. through lungs in not changed look, with urine and a stake — in the form of inorganic sulfate is removed. The page can be allocated with milk of nursing mothers. Poison has the expressed cumulative properties.

Hron. S.'s poisoning in an initial stage is characterized by the functional disturbances of a nervous system proceeding on type asthenic syndrome (see), and vegeto-vascular dystonia (see. Neurocirculatory dystonia ), it is frequent on hypertensive type. Complaints to persistent headaches, frustration of a dream, the general weakness, perspiration, unpleasant feelings in heart prevail. During the progressing of intoxication the phenomena of astenisation and vegetative disturbances, sometimes in combination with all-brain symptomatology and a vegetative and touch polyneuropathy accrue (see. Polyneuritis ). Vegeto-vascular paroxysms of hypothalamic character are possible. Cerebral vegeto-vascular disturbances can have resistant character, it is difficult to respond to treatment. Quite often at patients dysfunctions of closed glands come to light: disappearance of sexual desire, frustration of a menstrual cycle, impotence at men, etc. Gastritises and diseases of a liver are frequent. In blood the moderate hypochromia, a monocytosis and a lymphocytosis are sometimes observed.

At long contact with S. atherosclerosis of brain and coronary arteries progresses, different retinopathies develop (microaneurysms, hemorrhages, exudates in a retina).

Diagnosis hron. intoxications S. is based on identification of functional disturbances of c. N of page in combination with change of functions of nek-ry analyzers, especially sensomotor system. At absence a wedge, signs of a polyneuropathy connection of functional disturbances of a nervous system with S.'s action is established hardly. In early, including preclinical, diagnosis in the presence of disturbances from a nervous system a noticeable role is played fiziol. methods of a research: electromyography (see), refleksometriya (see), a topographical algezimetriya (see. Esteziometriya ), etc.

Treatment hron. S.'s intoxications symptomatic. In an initial stage hron. S.'s poisonings at the resistant phenomena of a polyneuropathy it is shown a dignity. - hens. treatment (Pyatigorsk, Tsqaltubo).

Acute poisonings of S. of easy degree remind alcohol intoxication. If not to remove the victim from a dangerous zone, very quickly there comes coma, all reflexes disappear, there can come death from an apnoea. After escaping of a coma perhaps psychomotor excitement, cerebellar frustration, a recurrence of spasms with a loss of consciousness is frequent. Acute psychoses are described.

First aid and emergency treatment

the Victim needs to be removed immediately from the room, a face, etc. with dangerous concentration of S., to transfer or transfer to the warm, aired placement or on fresh air, to exempt from the clothes constraining breath. Rest, hot-water bottles, reflex initiation of breath, inhalation of oxygen are necessary; at coma — the means stimulating breath and cordial activity (Cytitonum, lobeline, caffeine, strychnine, redoxons, B6, B15). At motive excitement enter Chlorali hydras in a microclyster. The victim needs to be hospitalized as soon as possible. Further treatment — symptomatic.

Examination of working capacity. In initial stages hron. intoxications working ability of patients is most often kept by S. Persons with permanent functional disturbances of a nervous system, and also with a polyneuropathy in the absence of effect of treatment are subject to transfer into the works excluding contact with S. As the indication to definition of the III group of disability or partial loss of professional working capacity at such patients often serves difficulty in employment as at continuation of contact with S. the disturbance of a homeostasis coming at them can have the progressing character.

Preventive measures. Mechanization of the works interfaced to contact with S., sealing of the equipment, use of individual protection equipment — industrial is obligatory gas masks (see) in the conditions of the increased content of vapors C. in air of a working zone, at very high concentration of S. in air — oxygen apparatuses. Protection of skin — rubber gloves, aprons, galoshes is obligatory (see. Footwear , Clothes special ) — and an eye (see. Points ).

Periodic performing medical examinations is necessary (see. Medical examination ). Also treatment of associated diseases is of great importance that promotes the general decrease in the prof. of incidence working in contact with Page.

Maximum allowable concentration of carbon sulfur in air of a working zone — 1 mg/m3.

Carbon sulfur in the medicolegal relation

In with ud. - medical practice of poisoning S. meet seldom and have accidental character. At a research of a corpse note a plethora and a fluid lungs, a soft meninx, multiple hemorrhages, dystrophic changes of internals, especially a liver and kidneys.

At with ud. - a chemical research C. take from biol. objects wet distillation. For high-quality detection use reaction of convertion of S. by evaporation with spirit solution of ammonia in ammonium rhodanide with the advent of red coloring after interaction with chloride of trivalent iron; reaction of receiving potassium xanthogenate after addition of the copper sulfate forming the black deposit of xanthogenate of oxide copper passing into a yellow deposit of xanthogenate of protoxidic copper; reaction of formation of a black deposit of silver sulfite at a transmission of vapors of the studied substance through mix of solutions of ammonia and caustic silver; reaction of formation of dimethyldithiocarbamate of dimethylamine — the substance having brown color.

Bibliography: Harmful substances in the industry, under the editorship of N. V. Lazarev and I. D. Gadaskina, t. 3, page 56, L., 1977; Karrer P. A course of organic chemistry, the lane with it., page 285, L., 1960; To at N d and-e in Yu. I. and d river. New ideas of a pathogeny of chronic serouglerodny intoxication, Doctor, business, No. 7, page 5, 1978; Occupational diseases, under the editorship of A. A. Letavet, etc., page 237, M., 1973; Occupational diseases, under the editorship of E. M. Tareeva and A. A. Bezrodnykh, page 265, M., 1976; The Reference book on professional pathology, under the editorship of L. N. Gratsianskaya and V. E. Kovshilo, page 289, L., 1981; Carbon disulfide, Geneva, 1979.

E. 3. Bronstein (court.), L. E. Milkov (gigabyte.), A. I. Tochilkin (chemical).