From Big Medical Encyclopedia

CARBONIC WATERS — the natural mineral waters having various ionic structure, a mineralization, temperature and containing not less than 0,5 g! l of carbon dioxide gas. Carbon dioxide gas contains in At. century in a molecular form or in the form of an ion of a hydrocarbonate (NSOD). At. century widely apply to treatment of diseases of cardiovascular system, kidneys, a liver, went. - kish. path, disbolism.

Lech. action natural At. it is known century long ago. In ancient legends of various people it is mentioned youth and strength of the people using a natural water of the «boiling» cold sources.

In the USSR fields At. are located in Transcarpathia, in the Caucasus, the Southern Pamir, the Central Tien Shan, East Sayan Mountains, Transbaikalia, the Southern Primorye, East and Central Kamchatka century.

In the territory of the USSR carbonic waters were created as a result of receipt in underground waters of carbon dioxide gas of a deep origin. Carbon dioxide gas increases dissolving capacity of underground waters and provides accumulation in them of mineral components. Structure At. can change considerably depending on breeds century, with to-rymi they contact. Most widely At. are presented by three main classes century: 1) gidrokarbo

musical, 2) sulfate-hydrocarbonate, 3) hloridno-hydrocarbonate-nye. Temperature At. it is various century: are available cold and very hot At. century. A mineralization At. century usually makes 0,5 — 2,5 g! the l \pH is more often lower than 7,0.

In a crust, time on the basis of sources At. century in our country such known resorts as Kislovodsk (see), Arzni (see), Da-rasun (see), Shivanda (see Resorts), Shmakovka function (see). Borjomi (see), Yessentuki (see 1. D ER mu to (see), Pyatigorsk (see), Zheleznovodsk (see). Abroad At. use in resorts Ems (see), Naukhaym (see) century —

Germany, Vichy (see) — France, Kry-nitsa (see) — the Party of Russian Taxpayers, Karlovi - Wa - ri (see), Marianske-Jiazne (see) — ChSSR.

In resorts natural At. apply to drink, intestinal washings, inhalations century (see Mineralnye Vody, Intestinal washings, Inhalation), and also to outside treatment in the form of bathtubs (see Balneoterapiya, Bathtubs). For drinking treatment, inhalations and intestinal washings use At. century with the content of carbon dioxide gas not less than 0,5 g! l, for bathtubs — with the content of carbon dioxide gas not less than 1,4 g! l.

The most widespread procedure are the carbonic bathtubs applied to treatment, a hardening and a training of a row fi-ziol. systems of an organism, including cardiovascular and nervous. The course of treatment carbonic bathtubs includes 10 — 12 procedures. In the course of treatment water temperature is gradually lowered with 35 — 36 ° to 32 °, and time of the procedure is increased from 5 — 7 to 12 — 15 min.

In operation carbonic bathtubs on an organism the leading value has carbon dioxide gas. It irritates receptors of skin, expands vessels of skin and mucous membranes of respiratory tracts, gets into a blood channel, cells and fabrics that has a promoting effect on a nervous system, breath, changes a hemodynamics, gas exchange and level of oxidation-reduction processes in an organism. Under the influence of carbonic bathtubs there is a redistribution of blood in an organism, inflow of a venous blood to heart increases, force increases and heart rate decreases, peripheral vessels extend, the ABP decreases, ventilation of the lungs increases.

Indications to use of carbonic bathtubs: an idiopathic hypertensia of I and II stages, an ischemic disease of I and II functional classes with initial heart failure, seldom developing premature ventricular contraction, endocrinopathies which are characterized by the lowered function thyroid and gonads, a state after a long hypokinesia.

Contraindications: zlokachestven

but the proceeding hypertension, nephrosclerosis, chronic coronary heart disease with chronic coronary insufficiency of II, III degrees, and also the general contraindications to balneotherapy (see).

Technique of performing inhalations by mineral waters, the mechanism of their action on an organism, and also indications and contraindications to use — see Inhalation, Mineralnye Vody.

At drink At. century along with carbon dioxide gas the mineralization and water temperature, its iolny structure, time of reception in relation to time of meal are important. Drink At. makes neurohumoral impact on secretion and motility of a stomach and intestines, activity of a liver and pancreas century; primary links of influence are receptors of mucous membranes of a mouth, a stomach, a duodenum and change of electrolytic composition of blood.

Carbonic table water — the good drink refreshing and satisfying thirst. Indications to drinking treatment At. century various chronic diseases of a stomach (preferential with the lowered acidity), intestines, a liver, bilious ways are. Drink At. century like Narzan it is shown at hron. pyelitis, cystitis, diseases of a metabolism (gout, obesity), diabetes mellitus of the I degree.

Contraindications to drinking treatment are recently postponed went. - kish. bleedings.

A technique of carrying out, the mechanism of action of intestinal washings, and also indications and contraindications to them to lay down. to use — see. To both sh e h and ye pr ohm of a yv of N and I.

Bibliography: In about r about N and N. M N. Kliniko-fiziologichesky bases of medical use of carbonic waters, M., 1963, bibliogr.; About l e f and r e N to about In, T. Zna-

cheny chemical composition of mineral bathtubs for heat exchange and thermoregulatory reactions of a healthy and sick organism, Vopr. kurortol., fizioter., century 4, page 332, 1972; Tarasenko A. G.

8 CARBON dioxide GAS

Temperature effect of a carbonic bathtub on receipt in an organism and distribution of carbonic acid in it, in the same place, century 2, page 45, 1981; Carbonic waters of the USSR, under the editorship of L. A. Yarotsky, century 2, M., 1980.

V. T. Olefirenko.