From Big Medical Encyclopedia

«CANON OF MEDICAL SCIENCE» — the outstanding monument of medical literature of the Middle Ages written Ibn-Sina in the 20th 11 century.

Title page of the Venetian edition of «Canon of medical science».
the Title page of the edition of «A canon of medical science» in the Arab language.
Title page of the Soviet edition of «Canon of medical science».

To. century of N is the fundamental encyclopedia of medical knowledge of the time. In it with exhaustive completeness everything that belongs to health and diseases of the person is considered. This work contains apprx. 200 printed pages.

V K. century of N are stated the theory of medicine (anatomy, physiology, an etiology, a symptomatology), the doctrine about medicinal substances, private pathology and therapy. It consists of 5 books. In the first book an opinion of the author is stated of problems of medicine. Proceeding from the «humoral» doctrine dominating at that time — about four juice and the related temperaments (see. Humoral pathology ), Ibn-Xing considers the reasons of health and a disease, symptoms of diseases, states the doctrine about food and a healthy lifestyle. Extensive sections are devoted to the description of pulse and urine. In the second book «simple» drugs are described. 811 means of a plant, animal and mineral origin with the indication of their action, routes of administration, rules of collecting and storage are alphabetically located. The means applied in cosmetics, drugs at «tumors and spots», wounds and ulcers, diseases of joints, a respiratory organs, eyes, and also medicine against fever are given. The third book is devoted to the description of separate diseases and their treatment. Diseases of the head, an ear, a nose, language, further — on bodies — «from the head to toe» are considered, and also advice on obstetrics is given.

Inflammations of a pleura, lungs are described; gripes in a stomach (colic) and a bloody diarrhea (dysentery). Each section has anatomo-topographical introduction. The fourth book is devoted to surgery (treatment of dislocations and changes), the general doctrine about fever (crises at diseases). In it it is told about tumors, purulent bubbles of skin (pustules), purulent inflammations of hypodermic cellulose (phlegmon), abscesses, an ugly face, necrosis of bodies (gangrene), hypostases, a scrofula, contusions, and also about infectious diseases: to smallpox, measles, leprosy and plague. The main questions of the doctrine of poisons are taken up (toxicology). The fifth book speaks about «difficult» drugs: aperient and fixing, about oils, medicinal bandages and plasters, about drugs at diseases of the head, an eye, ears, teeth, a throat.

The definition of medicine given in To. century of N, was fundamental for many generations of doctors: «... medicine — science about knowledge of a condition of a body of the person as it healthily or lost health to keep health or to return it if it is lost». The great value is attached to type of a constitution and at the same time emphasized that it is very individually; from here the conclusion about need to individualize medicinal appointments is drawn. The thought of protection of an organism from diseases, about a role physical is consistently carried out. exercises in strengthening of health.

Ibn-Xing writes about the correct education of the child, including patient, about a general regime for the persons which reached puberty, the mode for aged, putting forward the ideas of prevention and hygiene; the purpose of its profession of a physician — not only to cure the patient, but also to prevent developing of a disease.

Are suggested about a role of the small invisible beings able to cause a disease and transmitted through air and water. In this regard the demand to boil or filter water is made.

The sections of the treatise devoted to surgery contain the instructions concerning production of a number of operations, in particular a removing calculus from a bladder. Some moments of operation are described with details which testify to personal experience of the author in production of similar interventions. Ibn-Xing instructs in use of the probe and describes its different types. Especially in detail in To. century of N understand methods of diagnosis of diseases on the basis of a research of urine (on color, a smell etc.). Ibn-Xing considered that each phase of a disease is followed by change in urine, each feature of a disease is reflected in its look and, at last, that features of urine characterize a structure of the person in general.

V K. century of N are in detail described the mental disorders which are followed by nonsense epilepsy, a lethargy, paralyzes, headaches, sleeplessness and methods of treatment of mental diseases in general and melancholies in particular are recommended. Ibn-Xing investigated patients, listening to their breast an ear, tapped a stomach and a breast, defining a sound «burdyuchny» (stupid) and «drum» (tympanic).

Ibn-Sina's pharmacy represents attempt to combine the available numerous observations in system, to connect them about a wedge, observations.

Recommended in To. century of N pharmaceuticals are very rich and various, many of them entered scientific pharmacology.

The first transfer To. century of N on Latin is made in 12 century by Gerard of Cremona and dispersed in a set of manuscripts. After the invention of printing it appeared among the first printing books. Its first edition appeared in 1473 in Milan. More than 30 times To. century of N was published completely and many times in excerpts. In all high fur boots of Europe to the second half of 17 century inclusive «Canon» was the main management, on Krom teaching medicine was conducted. On it theories of medicine studied not only to recognition, treatment and the prevention of diseases, but also. Rules of health protection, dietetics, gigabyte. Ibn-Sina's instructions throughout many centuries were starting point for a set of treatises on these subjects.

In Russia in ancient hand-written doctor books and herbalists Ibn-Sina's councils were used, to-rogo copyists called Avisena. The unabridged kommentirovanny edition of transfer To. for century of N from the Arab original on a modern language it was not carried out in one country of the world, except the USSR. Attempt to translate To. ended with century of N on English language (1930) on a half of the first book. Transfer To; century of N on the Russian and Uzbek languages was carried out by Academy of Sciences of UZSSR by means of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences. In a basis of the Russian and Uzbek full kommentirovanny translations To. for century of N (this work was conducted within 1950 — 1960) the Arab manuscript of 12 century from a meeting Leningrad in-that oriental studies of Academy of Sciences of the USSR is put (almost deprived of distortions of the text, the most ancient of available). As the additional text for transfer the text of the Arab edition of 1877 made from the manuscript which is not dated publishers is used published in Bulake (apprx. Cairo).

See also Meditsina .

Bibliography: Ibn Xing Abu Ali (Avicenna). A canon of medical science, the lane with the Arab., book 1 — 5, Tashkent, 1954 — 1960.

B. D. Petrov.