CANNING PRODUCTION — the enterprise which is specially equipped for conservation of products of plant and animal origin. An end product of such processing are semi-finished products and ready for application canned food (see). These enterprises are placed in those districts of the country where there are in enough necessary raw materials. Such placement is reasonable since transportation of raw materials is excluded and its bacterial, and the general impurity decreases.
Production of canned food and their quality are regulated in the USSR by standards and technical specifications. At intake of raw materials on the enterprises K. the item is defined its quality and suitability for processing. In the course of pretreatment raw materials are sorted, washes, smoothed out and crushed. Ready raw materials are stacked in cans, then they are corked and sterilized. Mode sterilizations (see) depends on a type of a product, the size banks, degrees of a microbic obsemenennost, acidity, fat content, a consistence of a product and other factors. Important indicator of a condition of a techno of l. process in To. the item is the level of a microbic obsemenennost of canned food which depends on a bacterial obsemenennost of raw materials, spices, salt, sugar, contact with the contaminated equipment, and also on speed of a techno of l. process, extent of its automation and respect of personal hygiene by personnel.
Sanitary bakteriol. control on To. the item provides definition of a microbic obsemenennost of raw materials and a techno of l. the equipment, a cut it is made in each change on all lines and each type of the developed canned food. Bakteriol, control of finished goods is carried out at disturbance of process of sterilization and at failure on autoclaves of thermorecorders.
Enterprises K. items can be specialized (e.g., meat-packing, concentrated milk, fish-canning) or universal, developing products from various raw materials.
The sanitary protection zone for canneries shall be 50 m, except the enterprises fish-canning and meat-packing (as a part of meat-processing plants) for which the zone of 100 m is established. In structure To. items enter work, non-productive and subsidiary rooms. Work rooms develop the main products, auxiliary provide production with a container (the zhestyanobanochny, box and cooper's workshop), steam (boiler room) and carry out repair (the mechanical-repair workshop); subsidiary workshops are not connected with primary activity of the enterprise. The design of production rooms shall provide threading tekhnol. process, excluding the counter and crossing flows of the movement of raw materials, semi-finished products and finished goods or a pure and dirty container.
In work rooms To. items of a wall on height of 1,8 m are revetted with a glazed tile, other part is plastered by limy or limy and cement solution with limy whitewashing; floors shall be water-proof and convenient for cleaning and disinfection. Raw platforms, floors of freezing departments and warehouses can have an asphalt coating. For withdrawal of drain waters from floors of production rooms ladders to dia are arranged. 100 mm. Ladders in upper floors and suspended pipes for drain waters it is not allowed to have over machines and devices for processing of foodstuff and over jobs. Direct coupling of ladders with sewer network is forbidden. Withdrawal of drains is made with a rupture of a stream through funnels or receivers with hydraulic gates. For catching of fat from drain waters before their release in sewer network establish a giro catchers. The water applied at the enterprises K. the item for drinking, production and economic needs, shall meet the requirements of GOST of drinking water. Used at the enterprises K. items manufacture pipelines for pumping of liquid and pyureobrazny products of the stainless steel and other materials which are not exposed to corrosion.
The areas of refrigerators at raw workshops shall correspond to the maximum quantity of the raw materials needing storage. Temperature in refrigerators is installed within 0 — 3 °.
Occupational diseases at workers To. items depend on a type of the processed raw materials (meat, fish, vegetables, fruit etc.) and the level of technical equipment of the enterprise. Emergence is possible helminthoses (see), candidiasis (see). In washing department workers are affected by the increased air humidity, in cooking and autoclave departments — high temperature. Operational injuries are generally connected with work in non-productive departments.
Medical - a dignity. actions on To. items are similar to that on other food productions: medical inspection at employment, periodic medical examinations, a dignity. - a gleam. work.
In structure of household premises of the enterprises K. items surely enter a propusknik with wardrobe, shower and washing, and also the medical room.
See also Conservation .
Bibliography: Hygiene of food, under the editorship of. K. S. Petrovsky, t. 2, page 228, M., 1971; The Reference book on production of canned food, under the editorship of V. I. Rogachyov, t. 1 — 3, M., 1965 — 1971.
V. A. Kudasheva.