CANNED FOOD — the sterilized foodstuff (meat, fish, vegetable, fruit, milk) in various hermetic packaging.
To. are important especially in conditions where there is no possibility of regular supply with fresh foodstuff.
Duration of food To. without prejudice to human health depends on quality of the food raw materials used for their production from observance of the production technology, and also from quality of a container for a possibility of long-term storage of canned food without deterioration and biol, values of products.
In the course of sterilization To. are exempted from not sporiferous microorganisms, vegetative forms of sporiferous bacteria and considerable number a dispute. However disputes of some aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms of a termoustoychiva, they are capable to maintain the mode of sterilization and to keep the viability long time. At dense filling of cans, deaerating and full sealing air in To. is absent and aerobic microflora cannot develop, but disputes of anaerobic microorganisms can keep viability. The pathogenic types having the expressed toxic properties also occur among them (e.g., Cl. botulinum). It is also necessary to mean that at house production To. their full sterility is not always reached. The microorganisms and their disputes which remained live can serve as an origin of food toxicoinfections (see. Toxicoinfections food ). Especially big danger is constituted at the same time by disputes of Cl. botulinum which can cause a serious poisoning — botulism (see). Therefore to production To. in house conditions it is necessary to belong carefully and to make very carefully as roughing-out of the preserved products (cleaning, washing), and their thermal treatment and pressurizing of packaging. For safety such To. it is recommended to subject before the use to additional intensive warming up.
At long-term storage of canned food there can be changes of chemical structure and organoleptic properties of products. Changes of content of vitamins at storage To. the hl concern. obr. ascorbic to - you and to a lesser extent other vitamins. A keeping ascorbic to - you depend on temperature of storage To., from a degree of admission of cans products, and also from the size of vacuum at roll-in of cans. Safety of carotene, thiamin, Riboflavinum, nicotinic to - you in To. almost does not depend on temperature of storage. In the products sterilized in banks and subjected to usual thermal culinary treatment essential change of mineral composition is not observed.
At corrosion of an inner surface of a container in preserved food the content of salts of tin and iron increases. For protection from corrosion the inner surface of cans is covered with a special varnish. Development of corrosion leads to disturbance of tightness that is the most frequent reason of damage of K. Germetichnost can be broken also owing to deformation of cans as a result of rough mechanical influences, and also because of defects of a zapayka and the pro-soldering of seams.
Content of salts of heavy metals (tin, iron, lead) in To. it can be raised owing to hit them in products in a process of manufacture To. and during their storage — as a result of corrosion of a tin. In a poluda of cans no more than 0,14%, from them lead — no more than 0,04% are allowed impurity. In outside solder of lead there have to be no more than 65% at production of a seam «взамок» and no more than 35% for a seam «vnakhlestka». Existence of compounds of tin is allowed in milk To. to 100 mg on 1 kg of a product, in meat, fish, vegetable, fruit To. and compotes — to 200 mg on 1 kg of a product. Marginal content of salts of copper in fish To. with tomato sauce of 8 mg, vegetable To. — 10 mg, in milk To., fruit compotes and puree — 5 mg, in jam and jam — 10 mg, in a tomato puree — 15 — 20 mg, in a tomato paste — to 80 mg on 1 kg of a product.
Biochemical, the processes proceeding in canned food under the influence of life activity of proteolytic microorganisms are followed by decomposition of proteic matters and gas generation. Gases, collecting banks inside, press on its walls, causing their swelling (biological, or true, bombazh). To. with true bombazhy are not suitable for the use. Inflation of a bottom banks can occur also at the wrong storage To. Besides, owing to the defect of roll-in, and also at expansion left in bank of air protrusion of the bottom which is easily set by pressure of fingers is possible (false bombazh, or «hlopusha»). Identification of species of a bombazh and the solution of a question of implementation such To. the doctor shall make.
To store To. it is necessary in the dry, well ventilated rooms at t ° 3 — 5 °. All types To. shall answer the corresponding GOST. At a dignity. - a gigabyte. to examination for a lab. researches select first of all defective cans — with the blown-up covers, rumpled, rusty etc. Determination of term of production To. in the absence of other data it is made by interpretation of the stamps which are squeezed out on bottoms banks. On one of them the stamp defining department, number of the plant and year of production To is usually squeezed out. (last figure). On another — the stamp consisting of figures and letters which designate number of change, number and month of production To. and their assortment number.
Canned food for baby food. The range of products for production To. for baby food it is rather various: fruit, fruits, vegetables, meat products and fish. Preserved foods for feeding of children of the first year of life gradually and in necessary quantities according to the scheme of rational feeding can be entered as a feeding up instead of natural. Semolina and rice grain, sugar, and also cream, creamy or vegetable oil are a part of some canned food.
Mechanical crushing of canned food depending on degree is subdivided into 3 look: homogenization (a particle size of 150 — 200 microns), a pyurirovaniye (800 — 1000 microns), crushing by small pieces (to 2000 microns).
Shelf-life of children's canned food from 6 months to 1 year.
Preserved foods for baby food can be divided into 3 basic groups.
Canned food from fruit and berries: the juice (clarified with pulp, blended), puree (fruit, berry, fruktovoovoshchny, fruit and groat).
Canned food from vegetables: juice, puree (vegetable, a vegetable - groat, dry).
Canned food from meat, fish and an offal: puree (meat, fish, chicken, from an offal), cream soups of willows of the specified products with vegetables, grain.
The names «puree» and «cream soups» are synonyms since these To. are identical on a compounding.
In the first months of life juice is preferable (more than 20 types of the clarified juice and 15 types of juice with pulp), the sweet purees containing large amounts of vitamins, and the combined juice and purees providing a combination of less vitamin-rich products to vitaminonositel (extract of a dogrose, blackcurrant, etc. are developed). Juice with pulp completely keeps natural taste, color and aroma of fresh fruits, they contain more pectin. From 1 — 2 month it is recommended to appoint apple, carrot, blackcurrant juice, from 3 — 3,5 months — plum, cherry, apricot, and also juice of a citrus, strawberry, crimson, tomato with care.
Tinned fruit purees for baby food are appointed to children from 2 — 3 months and prepare from apples, plums, peaches, apricots. From vegetables in a combination with fruit sweet vegetables — carrots, vegetable marrows, pumpkin are most often used. Vegetable purees are appointed to children with 4,5 — 5-month age. Various vegetables with a certain vitamin, mineral and microelement composition are a part of vegetable tinned purees.
From 6 — 8 months of life the range of the products used in food of the child considerably extends. During this period the child shall receive the meat and other products of high nutritional value rich with protein of animal origin, irreplaceable amino acids, mineral substances.
For preparation of canned food from meat and an offal for baby food use the cooled beef from young growth and veal since these meat products contain a little connecting fabric, edges it is badly acquired by an organism, and also an offal — a liver, brains, language. From a bird for children of early age use meat of chickens and turkey poults.
From 8-month age in food of the child it is possible to use different types of fishes. From them cook canned food also in the homogenized, pyureobrazny and krupnoizmelchenny look.
Beef-infusion broths, soups enter into a diet of the child from 7-month age. To the children having anemia, rickets, or the homogenized purees from a liver it is possible to appoint cream soup with a liver from 4 — 5 months Myasoovoshchny soups have high nutritional value thanks to a combination of vegetables to animal products.
Canned food from fruit and vegetables can widely be used in food of children of preschool age. For children under 3 years it is necessary to use only those preserved foods on which label it is written «for baby food». 3 years are more senior it is possible to use usual To., but the range them should be limited to juice, compotes. Since school age meat in food of children can be partially replaced with canned meat.
Bibliography: Hygiene of food, under the editorship of. K. S. Petrovsky, t. 2, page 228, M., 1971; A. F. Himiya's Deputies in the canning industry, M., 1965; it e, Quality of canned food, M., 1967; The Reference book on a children's dietetics, under the editorship of I. M. Vorontsov and A. V. Mazurin, L., 1977; The Reference book on production of canned food, under the editorship of V. I. Rogachyov, t. 1 — 3, M., 1965 — 1971.
V. A. Kudasheva (pitas.); E. M. Fateeva (pediat.).