From Big Medical Encyclopedia

CAMPHOR (Camphora; GFH) — analeptical and cardiotonic means. Bicyclic ketone of a terpenic series [1,7,7 - trimetilbitsiklo-(1,2,2) - geptanon-2], C 10 H 16 O 6  :

The white crystal pieces, colourless crystal powder or the pressed tiles with a crystal structure which are easily knifed and sticking together in lumps. Possesses a strong characteristic smell and spicy bitterish taste. To. it is slightly soluble in water (1:840), is easily alcohol-soluble, ether, chloroform, fatty and essential oils.

In medical practice apply as natural — dextrorotatory To., got from a camphoric tree [Cinnamomum camphora (L.)], growing in China and Japan, or from a camphoric basil of Ocimum canum (a tropical bush this. a mint family), and synthetic — left-handed, received from the fir oil extracted from the Siberian fir (Abies sibirica Leb.). The bornyl acetate which is contained in fir oil by saponification is transferred (method of a kat of lytic dehydrogenation) to the baras camphor which is oxidized in To. Such way of receiving To. it was offered by P. G. Golubev in 1903. Left-handed To. it is implemented in practice by N. V. Vershinin. For external use it is possible to use synthetic racemic To., received from turpentine.

At topical administration To. has the irritating and antiseptic effect, it is well soaked up through skin and mucous membranes. At introduction under skin action To. it is shown in 20 — 30 min. In a human body and animals To. it is oxidized and allocated with kidneys in the form of glucuronides. A part of a dose in not changed look is removed bronchial and sweat glands, and also with bile.

Resorptive action To. it is characterized by excitement of c. N of page — a cerebral cortex, especially motive zone, the vasomotor and respiratory centers, increase in reflex irritability of a spinal cord. To. renders also direct kardio-and vasotonic action, increases sensitivity of adrenoreaktivny structures of cardiovascular system to action of catecholamines, at the same time interfering with their inactivation, improves energy balance in a cardiac muscle, increasing its reactivity on influence of sympathetic nerves, in particular the strengthening nerve; causes coronarodilator and antiarrhytmic effect. To. has peripheral and central holinoblokiruyushchy effect. Drug belongs to a little toxic compounds. A toxic dose To. for the person of 2 — 15 g.

Apply To. at acute and hron, cordial weakness, for improvement of breath and blood circulation at various diseases, at poisoning narcotic and hypnagogues; as an expectorant — at acute and hron, Qatar of respiratory tracts and as local irritative means — at inflammatory processes, rheumatism, etc. According to these indications To. appoint in the form of various drugs. Oil solution K. (Solutio camphorae oleosa of 20% pro injectionibus, GFH, 20% solution K. in peach-kernel oil) enter subcutaneously the adult 1 — 5 ml, to children till 1 year — 0,5 — 1 ml, up to 2 years — 1 ml, 3 — 6 years — 1,5 ml, 7 — 9 years — 2 ml, 12 — 14 years — 2 — 2,5 ml. Pounded To. (Camphora trita) is appointed inside: the adult on 0,1 — 0,2 g, children depending on age on 0,01 — 0,075 g. Camphoric alcohol (Spiritus camphoratus) consisting of 1 h camphor, 7 h alcohol and 2 h water and camphoric oil (Solutio camphorae oleosae ad usum externum) — 10% solution K. in sunflower-seed oil — appoint outwardly for grindings at arthritises and rheumatism and for the prevention of decubituses. Sulfocamphocainum — 10% sulfocamphoric to - you and novocaine appoint water solution of complex connection subcutaneously, intramusculary or intravenously on 2 ml 2 — 3 times a day.

The brominated connection K. — Bromcamphora (Bromcamphora, a synonym of Camphora monobromata, GFH) is sedative from group of bromides (see. Bromides ). Bromcamphora is applied at the increased nervous irritability, a neurasthenia and neurosises of heart, appointing it inside on 0,15 — 0,5 g to reception 2 — 3 times a day.

At administration of oil solutions K. under skin infiltrates are possible (see. Infiltration ) and paraffinomas (see. Lipogranuloma ). It is necessary to be careful of hit of these solutions in a gleam of vessels in view of danger oil embolisms (see).

To. it is contraindicated at tendency to convulsive reactions and an acute endocarditis (the separation of an embolus during the strengthening of cordial activity is possible). Nursing mothers should appoint drug with care (reduces and stops department of milk).

See also Analeptical means .

Bibliography: Saratikov A. S. Camphor (pharmacology and clinical use), Tomsk, 1966, bibliogr.; With ok about A. F l. Complications at hypodermic administration of camphoric oil, the Doctor, business, No. 10, page 147, 1963.

A.S. Saratikov.