CAMOMILE PHARMACEUTICAL (Matricaria recutita L.; synonym Matricaria chamomilla L.) — annual herbaceous plant this. thistle family (Asteraceae). The drugs prepared from R. and., have disinfecting and antiinflammatory properties, render moderate spasmolytic and emollient effect.
The stalk is naked, branchy; leaves dvoyakoperistorassechenny on linear segments; flower baskets apprx. 1,5 cm in the diameter, consist of ray white lingular and internal yellow tubular florets; the receptacle is conic, naked, hollow (fig.) inside. Smell of flowers strong, fragrant; taste is spicy, bitterish. River and. it is most widespread in a steppe zone of Ukraine and the Crimea, in the North Caucasus. As medicinal raw materials use flower baskets (Flores Chamomillae), to-rye collect both with wild-growing, and from the cultivated plants in an initial blossom when lingular flowers accepted horizontal position.
Flower baskets contain 0,2 — 0,8% of essential oil of the characteristic blue color caused by availability in it of bicyclic sequiterpene of a hamazulen. Except a hamazulen, essential oil contains aliphatic sequiterpene farnezen and its alcohol farnesol, monocyclic sesquiterpenic alcohol bisabolon and its oxides — bisabolonok-sid, etc. In addition to essential oil, in R.'s flowers and. contains matritsin (prokhamazulen), flavonoids (apigenin, etc.), coumarins (umbelliferone, etc.), mucous substances (6 — 11%), a phytosterol, ascorbic to - that, carotene and nek-ry other substances.
Medical effect of drugs P. and. it is caused by a complex of the substances which are contained in this plant. Essential oil has disinfecting and antiinflammatory properties. Flavonoids and coumarins render moderate spasmolytic effect, and mucous substances — emollient action.
River and. apply in the form of infusions, to-rye appoint inside and in enemas (at ponosa, a meteorism and enterospasms) or outwardly for lotions, bathtubs and rinsings as antiseptic and astringent. Inside infusion P. and. it is possible to appoint also as diaphoretic. For external use of GFH allows use of flowers of a camomile bezjyazychkovy (M. of matri-carioides Porter). Are not allowed to use a camomile odourless (M. inodora L.) and camomiles (Anthemis arvensis L., A. cotula L.), different from R. and. lack of a smell and other type of a receptacle, and also the daisy, to-ry differs from R. and. inodorous very large baskets.
From R. and. receive drug Romasulonum (Romasulon) containing extract of a camomile, essential oil of a camomile and emulsifier (twin-80); it has the antiinflammatory and deodorizing properties. Drug is used at inflammatory diseases of skin (e.g., at dermatitis, trophic ulcers) and mucous membranes (e.g., at stomatitises, ulites, vaginita, cystitis, gastritises etc.). Appoint inside, in the form of enemas and outwardly. For external use and for enemas 1,5 table. l. drug part in 1 l of water. For use inside 0,5 chayn. l. drug part in 1 glass of warm water.
Form of release: bottles but 100 ml. See also Medicinal plants .
Bibliography: Muravyeva D. A. A pharmacognosy (with fundamentals of biochemistry of medicinal plants), page 244, M., 1978.
D. A. Muravyeva.