CAMEROON, United Republic of Cameroon — the state in the Western Africa.
The area is 475,4 thousand km 2 . Population of 6530 thousand people (1976). The capital — Yaounde (with suburbs of 166 thousand people, 1973). Administratively To. it is divided into provinces, the last — into departments, districts and districts. Ofits. languages — French and English. To. — republic. The head of state and the governments — the president. The legislature belongs to the president and National assembly. Climate on Yu. equatorial, wet; in other part K. — ekvatorialnomussonny, with rainy summer and in the dry winter. To — the agrarian country with poorly developed economy, in a cut dominates the foreign capital. 85% of the population are engaged in agriculture; it gives 47% of gross national product. Under export cultures (cocoa, coffee, bananas, raw cotton, a peanut, rubber, etc.) 29 — 30% of a ploughland (1970) are occupied.
The natural movement of the population in 1970 — 1975, according to official figures, published in editions of WHO, was characterized by the following indicators (on 1000 people): birth rate 40,4, general mortality 22,0. Natural increase of the population of 18,4%. Child mortality 137,2 on 1000 live-born (1964 — 1965). In structure of incidence infectious and parasitic diseases prevail: malaria, tuberculosis, flu, amebiasis, bacillar dysentery, infectious hepatitis, measles, whooping cough, chicken pox, mumps. In 1970 in To. 823 cases of a leprosy were registered. Gonorrhea, syphilis, trachoma, and also an onchocercosis, an urinogenital schistosomatosis and other parasitic diseases are eurysynusic.
Performs management of health care mines - in health care, a cut has department of medical institutions, in charge of the organization and functioning of the central BCs, and department of fight against epidemics and rural medicine, in charge of rendering medical aid in rural areas.
In 1970 in To. 80 BCs and the medical centers in which 19 141 beds were developed functioned (3,3 beds for 1000 zhit.), from them 54-tsy on 12 886 beds — state. The bed fund was distributed as follows: 11 728 beds in 9 central-tsakh, 5773 beds in 60 rural-tsakh, 1640 beds in 11 medical centers. The medical centers, besides, incorporated mobile crews for identification of infectious patients and performing vaccination, and also for control and supervision of the peripheral centers of health care in which the paramedical staff worked. The extra hospital help was the polyclinic departments of BC, 2 policlinics, 308 clinics, 532 centers of health care incorporating 2 — 3 nurses and 1 midwife, 15 posts of medical aid where there are hospitals, but the quantity of beds is very limited. V K. there were 39 women's and 6 children's consultations, 8 medical offices for reception of children, 5 school medical offices, 8 dental surgeries, 4 psychiatric and 4 tubercular policlinics, 4 policlinics for veins. patients, 2 laboratories of public health care (1970). The name and content of work of healthcare institutions To. not fully correspond to the concepts accepted in the USSR (see. Treatment and prevention facilities, abroad ).
In 1971 in To. there were 225 doctors (1 doctor on 25 956 zhit.), from which 135 were in public service; 61 druggists, 10 dentists, 84 midwifes, apprx. 1200 nurses, 1424 assistants to the nurse, the 2nd dignity. engineer, 14th dignity. inspectors, 2 physiotherapists, 17 laboratory assistants and 19 of their assistants, 12 X-ray technicians, etc.
Training of doctors is carried out according to the six-year program in the University center of medical and sanitary sciences to Yaounde. Four schools train nurses, 5 schools — assistants to nurses and 2 schools — midwifes.
Bibliography: Draft of the program budget for 1976 and 1977 financial years, Ofits. dokum. WHO No. 220, page 441, Geneva, WHO, 1975; Countries of the world, Short political and economic reference book, page 268, M., 1977; World Health Statistics Annual 1970, v. 2, p. 3, v. 3, p. 2, Geneva, 1974.