From Big Medical Encyclopedia

CAMERAS OF CONDITIONED REFLEXES — specially equipped rooms intended for studying of uslovnoreflektorny activity of animals or the person. Use To. at. influence of the environment on an organism allowed to study river objectively, to determine the major consistent patterns higher nervous activity (see).

The main requirements imposed to To. at. rubles, are: 1) partial or full isolation of an experimental object from foreign irritants, 2) stabilization and dosing of all impacts on an experimental object, 3) perhaps fuller registration of various aspects of activity of the studied organism, 4) stability of registration of activity of an organism.

the Scheme of installation for a research of uslovnoreflektorny activity at animals (according to Pavlov): the dog is separated from the experimenter who can influence an animal various irritants (an electric call, knock of a metronome, light), at the same time on the recorder various reactions of an animal (intensity of salivation, frequency of heartbeat) are registered.

The type K is classical. at. the ruble developed by N. A. Podkopayev and E. A. Ganike in I. P. Pavlov's laboratory. Equipment of such camera (fig.) turned on devices and devices for implementation of various impacts on an experimental animal and registration of his responses in the course of uslovnoreflektorny activity. Impact on an animal was limited to sound, light, mechanical, chemical or electric irritants. Registered in the beginning only secretion of saliva, and later — the frequency of heartbeat and other indicators.

The aspiration to increase in number of the registered indicators, ways of impact on an object, and also to studying of more and more irregular shapes of behavior of animals resulted in need of creation of new types K. at. rubles Were designed cameras for studying of animals in the conditions of free behavior or for a research of interaction of two or more animals, the camera for studying of extrapolation behavior etc. Types of cameras differed depending on a species of an animal, features of his way of life and behavior (cameras aquariums, cameras terrariums, cameras for monkeys, etc. are created, e.g.).

Studying of century of N of of the person has a number of features. One of such features is high sensitivity of mentality of the person to decrease in a certain minimum of irritants providing a normal tone brain (see). To. at. rubles for the person have no that special isolation from external irritants what have classical To. at. river. Practically for this purpose any isolated room equipped with the corresponding equipment can serve.

The researches conducted in I. P. Pavlov's laboratory showed that an irritant is not only existence of an incentive, but also its absence. For a research of influence of the sharp restriction of the influencing irritants called touch isolation (see. Deprivation ), various options K are offered. at. rubles who can provide various forms of isolation of an experimental object from the environment.

Similar cameras represent the special rooms with stable conditions of the environment providing sufficient sound isolation and muffling the sounds arising in the camera reducing to a minimum skin, proprioceptive inflow providing sharp restriction of visual and other irritants. The condition of the examinee is estimated according to his verbal report, electric activity of a brain, an ECG, breath etc.

A set of the equipment in the camera is defined by research problems and method of registration of these or those aspects of activity of an organism. Nye the best ways of registration of activity of an experimental object are telemetry (see), use of special sensors (see).

Bibliography: Galperin S. I. and Tatar A. E. Techniques of a research of higher nervous activity of the person and animals, M., 1973, bibliogr.; Ganike E. A. To a question of construction of soundproof cameras, Izv. Petro-gradsk. nauch. in-that, t. 5, page 135, 1922; Techniques of a research of uslovnoreflek-even activity at animals, the Bibliographic index, sost. S. B. Aro-nova, etc., M., 1974; Podkopayev N. A. Technique of studying of conditioned reflexes, M., 1952, bibliogr.; H e b b D. O. The organization of behavior, N. Y., 1949.

BB. B. Uryvayev.