CALMETT Albert (Calmette Albert, 1863 — 1933) — the French microbiologist and the hygienist, L. Pasteur's pupil. Member of the French medical academy (1919) and French academy (1928).
Ended Parisian medical f-t in 1885, and then served as the sea doctor. Since 1890 Pasterovsky's employee in-that in Paris. In 1891 organized, at the request of L. Pasteur, the first branch of Pasterovsky in-that in Saigon (nowadays Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam). Since 1895 the director of Pasterovsky based by it in-that in Lille. From 1898 to 1917 the prof. of hygiene and bacteriology medical f-that in Lille. Since 1917 Pasterovsky's vice-director in-that in Paris.
A. Kalmett published more than 200 works on bacteriology, epidemiology, hygiene, pharmacology. Its major researches belong to development of methods of controlling with tuberculosis, plague, smallpox. Together with Geren (S. of Guerin) he created the tuberculous vaccine which gained distribution around the world under the name of the vaccine BCG (see. BTSZH ). It was one of the first live bacterial vaccines. For the first time this vaccine was applied by A. Kalmett on newborns in 1921. On its initiative in France were organized a tube. clinics. First tube. the clinic was organized by it in 1901 in Lille.
A. Kalmett offered diagnostic reaction to tuberculosis. It generalized the researches on tuberculosis in monographs about a tuberculosis infection at the person and animals and precautionary vaccination against tuberculosis by means of BCG. In 1893 — 1897 he studied epidemiology of plague in Saigon and together with A. Yersin for the first time applied a serotherapy of this disease. It possesses a method of cleaning of a smallpox vaccine of saprophytes. Together with sotr. he in 1891 — 1914 studied snake poisons (structure, action, vaccination, immunity etc.) therefore anti-toxic serum for treatment of stings of snakes was offered. Capital researches A kept value. Kalmetta on bioscrubbling of drain waters, generalized in the monograph (1905 — 1914). The guide to the microbiological and serological equipment written to them together with other authors uses wide popularity.
Works: Recherches sur l’ 6puration& biologique et chimique des eaux d^gout effectu6es l'institut Pasteur de Lille et h la station of exp£rimentale de la Madeleine, t. 1—9, P., 1905 — 1914; Le venis, les animaux venimeux et la of s£roth6rapie antivenimeuse, P., 1907; Manuel technique de microbio-logie et de s6rologie, P., 1925, 1948 (pyc. lane, M., 1928); La vaccination preventive contre la tuberculose par le BCG, P., 1927 (sovm, with other), the Russian lane, L., 1929; L’infection bacillaire et la tuberculose chez l’homme et chez les animaux, P., 1936.
Bibliography: Vladimirov A. A. Albert Kalmett (1863 — 1933), Arkh. biol, sciences, it is gray. B, t. 35, century 2, page 355, 1934; Kagramanov A. I. To the 100 anniversary since the birth of A. Kalmett, Probl, a tube., No. 3, page 88, 1964; The Toga N about in and A. I. Zhizn and Albert Kalmett's activity, Vestn. USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, No. 8, page 69, 1964; Albert Calmette, 1863 — 1933, Ann. Inst. Pasteur, t. 51, p. 559, 1933.
Yu. I. Milenushkin.