From Big Medical Encyclopedia

CABINS OF AIRCRAFT are intended for accommodation of crew, passengers, control systems of the aircraft, and also for protection of crew members and passengers against action of adverse environmental factors.

Type K. l. and., features of a design, the placed equipment, and also parameters of a microclimate, are defined by appointment and flight technical characteristics of the aircraft. So, passenger airplanes have the hermetic cabin occupying practically all fuselage. It is divided by internal partitions into separate compartments (passenger salon, household compartments, a cabin of crew), each of which has the equipment according to the appointment. Many-placed military airplanes for all crew members can have a uniform cabin with the specific equipment of jobs of crew members or the separate cabins having separate sealing are equipped (e.g., a cabin for pilots, a cabin for the navigator, the shooter etc.). By transport (cargo) airplanes usually pressurize only a cabin of crew: the cargo compartment, as a rule, remains untight. By spaceships (space stations) several cabins, or the compartments separated from each other by strong (power) tight partitions with hatches that allows crew to be isolated if necessary in some of compartments are equipped. The most typical for spaceships is division of cabins (compartments) on working, household and lowered. In a working cabin the main jobs of crew are equipped and the equipment and devices necessary for performance of a flight task are concentrated. The household cabin is equipped for rest, meal; in it are established also a dignity. - tekhn, the equipment and means physical. trainings. The lowered cabin (device) is intended for descent and landing to the Earth's surface. In it a part of the equipment and equipment, a chair and the operating console is placed. At removal of the spaceship into an orbit the crew also is in the lander. For extravehicular activity either the lock-chamber, or one of compartments of the spaceship is used.

In 1966. The milling cutter (T. M. of Fraser) offered the following classification of the main rooms of the spaceship intended for crew: 1) the working compartment equipped for ship-handling and life support systems; 2) the general compartment for preparation and meal, physical. trainings and carrying out free time; 3) a personal compartment for a dream, storages of personal belongings; 4) a household compartment from the general storeroom and a dignity. - tekhn, the equipment.

According to Barnes (R. Barnes, 1973), rooms of the spaceship shall be divided into the following compartments: 1) command and control center; 2) an inhabited compartment with the place for a dream; 3) the site for acceptance of food, rest and entertainments in free time; 4) dignity. - a gigabyte. a compartment with the necessary equipment; 5) the place for carrying out repair work; 6) internal passes.

The first aircraft having small speeds and flight altitude had open cabins. With increase in speed and flight altitude protection of the pilot against a counterflow of air and other adverse factors of flight was required. So, there were cabins of originally open type with a transparent protective visor, later — the cabins which are completely closed by a special lamp, having systems of ventilation and heating, and, at last, completely sealed cabins counted on maintenance of necessary parameters of a microclimate in the conditions of high-rise flights (all aircraft having altitude more than 2,4 km are, as a rule, equipped with hermetic cabins). Use of hermetic cabins almost completely solved a problem of protection of crew and passengers of aircraft from negative impact heights (see). Ventilating hermetic cabins equipped the majority of modern airplanes. Necessary parameters of a microclimate in them are provided by pressurization (creation of higher, than in the surrounding atmosphere, pressure of air) and ventilation of a cabin with the air which is taken away from compressors of engines or special kabinny superchargers. The size of pressure in a cabin is regulated depending on flight altitude. The air coming to a cabin passes previously through units of aircraft air conditioning system where gets required temperature, is humidified and purified of impurity (vapors of fuel, sublimates of oils, etc.).

Regeneration hermetic cabins are usually used on aircraft where use of cabins with pressurization by their free air is technically impossible or inexpedient (aerostats, airplanes with very big altitude, spaceships). These cabins are completely isolated from the surrounding atmosphere, and the air which is in them is banished via the block of cleaning where its initial properties — chemical structure, humidity and temperature (are completely recovered see. Regeneration of air ).

The microclimate of salons and cabins of modern passenger airplanes is characterized by the following main indicators: absolute pressure of air in a cabin at the maximum height (ceiling) of flight of the airplane — not less than 567 mm of mercury., that there correspond to «height» in a cabin no more than 2400 m; speed of change of pressure in a cabin at ascent and decrease in the airplane — no more than 0,18 mm of mercury. in 1 sec.; air temperature in a cabin 18 — 22 ° at irregularity as across, and verticals no more than 3 °. For correction of heatfeelings of passengers individual ventilation is provided by the air having temperature 10 — 15 °; relative humidity to air — 25 — 60%; speed of the movement of air at the level of the head — no more than 0,4 m/s; concentration of carbon dioxide gas in air of a cabin — no more than 0,2%; temperature drop between air of a cabin and an inner surface of walls and a glazing — no more than 4 °; noise level in passenger salon — no more than 80 dB.

Requirements to degree of tightness of cabins of ventilating type are defined by reasons of safety. Tightness of a cabin shall be such, at a cut in case of refusal of system of pressurization pressure in it shall not be lower than pressure of the atmosphere on the ball of 4000 m. In the regeneration cabins working in a closed circuit, pressure and gas composition of the atmosphere can be established with broader range, beginning from relatives to land (pressure apprx. 760 mm of mercury. and the oxygen content — 21%) till almost monogaseous oxygen fluid with pressure of 200 — 260 mm of mercury. Use of hermetic cabins with pressure above the surrounding atmosphere contains a certain potential danger of an adverse effect on an organism in the form of a so-called explosive decompression (see. Compressed-air disease , Pressure difference ) — bystry equalization of pressure in a cabin with surrounding owing to emergency disturbance of integrity of its walls or a glazing.

The specific nature of activity of the pilot consists first of all that he acts as the operator of system of people — the car. Activity of the pilot proceeds in the conditions of a rigid limit of time, high dynamism of the proceeding processes, is followed by the increased neuroemotional pressure, however demands preservation of high performance of crew throughout all flight. These features of work of pilots demand the rational organization of jobs of members of flight crews.

Development of the main gigabyte. requirements to To. l. and. and to life support systems in them specialists of various specialties — aviation doctors — physiologists, psychologists, hygienists etc. are engaged. For the first time gigabyte. requirements to cabins of airplanes as to a workplace were formulated by H. M. Dobrotvorsky in 1927 — 1928 on the basis of studying of working conditions of aircrew by airplanes of that time. The central device of a cabin is the chair of the pilot, relatively to-rogo other equipment is packed and mounted. The design of a chair and the working pose created by it are chosen taking into account that the crew is forced to carry out all flight in a sitting position, and in some cases in addition to be fixed to a seat by fastened belts. For the best distribution of weight loading of a body, reduction of a static stress of muscles, improvement of blood circulation and portability of flight overloads (see. Acceleration ) chairs of pilots have the increased area of a seat, bearing area of a back and the situation which is a little rejected back from a vertical. For flights of big duration the design of a chair provides a possibility of change of a pose for the periods of rest due to increase in a tilt angle of all chair or change of this corner between a back and a seat.

By spaceships of a chair in the lowered cabin are established so that overloads on the site of removal into an orbit and on the site of descent affected astronauts in the direction a breast — a back. Besides, for improvement of portability of overloads (especially overloads at a rigid landing) lodgments of chairs are modelled on a figure of the astronaut.

On aircraft which escape is provided in an emergency by method ejections (see), chairs of pilots and other crew members at the same time are also a recovery aid. This circumstance imposes to chairs additional requirements, in particular to system of fastened belts and means of protection from an air flow at ejection at great speed.

By some high-speed airplanes apply the separated cabins to rescue of crew. If necessary such cabin with the crew which is in it special explosive charges «shoots back» the airplane and further independently goes down with a parachute. For maintenance in the course of descent of necessary vital conditions and for preservation of life to crew after a landing (landing on water) in a cabin cylinders with air and oxygen, means of a radio communication and the alarm system, caches and waters, etc. are placed.

Establishment of the sizes K. l. and., and also configuration and placement of the equipment in them are made on the basis of data of an anthropometrical research of aircrew taking into account need of performance of all volume of work for flight without rising from a chair and an exception of injuries about the acting parts of the equipment at emergency escape of the aircraft in air or landing.

As a basis for a rational design and placement in a cabin of bodies and control systems of the aircraft, and also numerous devices of system of indication, control and alarm system serve psikhofiziol, the possibilities of the person studied human engineering (see). All numerous devices, toggle-switches and control levers pack in separate groups on the basis of their functional purpose. The most important and often used in flight groups of devices and levers accommodate in well looked through and available zones of a cabin and control panels. Seldom used devices are located so that not to distract attention of the pilot. Usually they are supplied light or the chime drawing attention of the pilot or other crew member only at the right time. The standard (standardized) device of jobs provides placement in certain zones of a cabin and control panels of the main devices and an operating controls and other equipment that substantially facilitates training and a reeducation of aircrew (due to positive transfer of skills) and reduces a possibility of wrong actions, especially in the conditions of deficit of time.

V K. l. and., the space stations and the ships counted on long flights, first of all, along with the rational organization of jobs much attention is paid to creation of the conditions providing a possibility of long stay in them of crew combined by the general concept «habitability of a cabin» (see. Habitability ). It concerns creation and the equipment of vacation spots, meal, a dignity. - tekhn. devices, means physical. training and active recreation. All interior of cabins will be organized with calculation of reduction of negative influence on mentality of deficit of the free space, monotony and monotony of a situation and long isolation. It is reached by use of the small-size multi-purpose equipment changing to destination and to outward at various stages of flight. Creation in a cabin of a usual terrestrial situation with an accurate concept of «top» and «bottom», and also the choice of optimum color climate and lighting is of great importance.

See also Life support .

Bibliography: Grishanov N. G. High-rise equipment of airplanes of civil aviation, M., 1971, bibliogr.; Ivanov D. I. and Hromushkin A. I. Life support systems of the person at high-rise and space flights, M., 1968, bibliogr.; Isakov P. K., Ivanov D. I. and Popov I. G. Theory and practice of an air medicine, M., 1975; Lavnikov A. A. Fundamentals of air and space medicine, M., 1975; Fundamentals of bioastronautics and medicine, under the editorship of O. G. Gazenko and M. Calvin, t. 1 — 3, M., 1975; Mind of nanosecond to and y S. of the Item Person in a space orbit, M., 1974, bibliogr.

L. G. Golovkin.