From Big Medical Encyclopedia

CABANIS Pierre (Cabanis Pierre-Jean-Georges, 1757 — 1808) — the French doctor and the philosopher, the academician of the French academy. Finished medical education in Paris in 1783 there was a hl. doctor of BC, professional. Parisian medical school.


On the philosophical views P. Kabanis was one of representatives of fr. mechanistic materialism of 18 century. In his face, by K. Marx's definition, school of fr. materialism «... reached the culmination» (K. Marx and F. Engels, t. 2, page 140) as continuation, on the one hand, the materialistic parties of the doctrine of R. Descartes, with another — J. Locke's sensationalism. P. Kabanis looked for the primary source of the phenomena of public life in «human nature», in his «matter», i.e. reduced to physiology and medicine, absolutizing them. He considered that in the person the eternal principles, the only strong basis defining its rights and duties are underlain. Medicine, in his opinion, integrating public (history and ethics) and natural (physics and chemistry) sciences, shall become the finished rule in knowledge of the laws of nature and to serve improvement of the person. Therefore he recommended to legislators to be guided first of all by instructions of the doctor-physiologist, «carefully collecting all facts what studying of the person in a healthy and sick state can deliver». P. Kabanis offered a number of reforms on improvement of hospital business and system of training of doctors which are stated in its works of «The note on hospitals» and «About national education».

During blossoming of the activity P. Kabanis upheld omnipotence of human mind, science, especially medicine. However found reflection of mood of pessimism and scepticism in its latest works. F. Brusse and F. Pinel were followers and P. Kabanis's adherents.

Works: Oeuvres completes, t. 1—5, P., 1823 — 1825; The Relations between physical and moral human nature, the lane with fr., t. 1 — 2, SPb., 1865 — 1866.

Bibliography: Zabludowsky P. E. Kabanis is a doctor materialist of the 18th century, Klin, medical, t. 17, JSI * 5, page 25, 1939; In and-r i yo t at M. et Coury Ch. Histoire de la m6decine, p. 481, P., 1963, bibliogr.

P.E. Zabludowsky.