BURNETT Frank Makfarlen (Burnet Frank Macfarlane, sort. in 1899) — the Australian virologist and the immunologist, the member of the Australian academy of Sciences. In 1923 ended Melbourn un-t. Professor of experimental medicine of it un-that and director of institute of medical researches (Walter and Elisa Hall).
Main researches F. Burnett are devoted to ecology of viruses, relationship of viruses and their «owners», the mechanism of reproduction and variability of viruses, a bacteriophagia (in particular, lysogenies), to mechanisms of immunity, including an autoallergy, etc.
F. Burnett suggested to use a bacteriophage for typing of bacteria (Shigella); for the first time studied the activator Q fevers (see), his name (Rickettsia burneti) is appropriated to Krom, and also studied cultivation of viruses in chicken embryos, questions of genetics of an influenza virus. Described the enzyme destroying cellular receptors (RDE) in filtrates of a cholera vibrio at Cl. welchii and influenza viruses. Studied also viruses of fibroma and a myxoma. A number of its works is devoted to morphology of viruses of smallpox of canaries and the Newcastle disease. F. Burnett considers viral diseases of the person from the evolutionary and ecological points of view. Is one of authors of the clonal and selection theory immunity (see), for the Nobel Prize is sentenced to-ruyu it together with P. Medawar in 1960.
Works: Biological aspects of infections disease, Cambridge, 1940; Virus as organism, Cambridge, 1945 (Russian lane, M., 1947); Production of antibodies, Melbourne, 1949 (sovm, with Fenner F.); Viruses and man, St. Louis, 1955; Enzyme, antigen and virus, Cambridge, 1956; The clonal selection theory of acquired immunity, Cambridge, 1959; Principles of animal virology, N.Y. — L., 1960; Integrity of the body, Cambridge, 1962 (pyc. lane, M., 1964); Changing patterns, Melbourne, 1970; Cellular immunology, v. 1 — 2, Melbourne — Cambridge, 1971 (pyc. lane, M., 1971).
Bibliography: Burnet, Lancet, v. 1, p. 897, 1965; Sir Macfarlane Burnet, Nature (Lond.), v. 208, p. 729, 1965.
I. G. Balangding.