burial of the DEAD, sanitary and hygienic aspects

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

BURIAL OF THE DEAD, sanitary and hygienic aspects (synonym: burial, funeral) — removal of corpses or ashes of the dead in intended for this place (cemetery). The tombless or incorrectly buried corpses of the dead constitute danger since contaminate air, water and the soil light-end, liquid and firm products of decomposition, and also pathogenic microbes (in case of death from some infectious diseases).

At various times the different people had various ways 3. at. Corpses left on the Earth's surface far from the inhabited places («the valley of the dead»), placed in crypts, dug in to the earth, burned. Two last ways are most widespread.

At burial to the earth the body of the dead has to be necessary in the coffin made of easy breeds of a tree. Transportation of a corpse to the place of burial. - or the air transportation allowed only in the zinced, hermetically soldered coffin filled with the substance absorbing moisture. The metal coffin is located in the wooden, densely hammered together box and is transported in the luggage compartment. Transportation requires special permission of local SES (in the place of death) and the relevant transport department. Corpses of the dead demand special from especially dangerous infections disinfection (see). The order of burial of the dead from especially dangerous infections is defined by the special rules M3 of the USSR.

3. at. it is carried out on the land plots specially allotted for this purpose — cemeteries. Dignity. rules provided placement of cemeteries at distance not less than 300 m from inhabited constructions. For the cemetery the area with the dry friable soil, with an inclination to the opposite side from the settlement and a reservoir, with good airing is chosen not flooded floods, insolation and the level of subsoil waters not less than 0,5 m is lower than a bottom of a grave (at more high level of subsoil waters the site is drained). The cemetery shall have convenient access roads, to be fenced and planned on certain sites with drives and roads. At the well-planned cemetery there are the special room with a morgue and the mourning hall, office, a witness mark, a water supply system, flower shop, public toilets. Green plantings (strips, group and single planting of trees, green fences) shall occupy not less than 20% of the space of the cemetery and be located so that to provide sufficient airing and insolation of the territory. Correctly arranged cemetery does not constitute danger in epidemiol. relation. The territory of the cemetery, its improvement shall meet esthetic requirements.

Use of the territory of the former cemetery for construction of facilities with deep disturbance of a land cover can be authorized to SES. Thus after the last burial the so-called cemeterial period which is legislatively determined in our country lasting 20 years shall be sustained. However and before the expiration of this term the territory of the closed cemetery after removal of sepulchral hills and gravestones can be used for the device of parks, squares, green arrays.

Burning of corpses of the dead (cremation) is carried out in specially equipped buildings — crematoriums. Such way is preferable in a gigabyte. and epidemiol, the relation since at the same time quickly and completely bacteria perish pathogenic (including sporous), and also further pollution of the soil and water is excluded. In krematsionny furnaces the corpse is burned in a stream of the heated gases or air at t ° till 1000 °. During 1 — 1,5 hour there is final fracture of organic weight and transformation of the cremated body into ashes. During the operation of krematsionny furnaces protection of free air from pollution and smells shall be provided. After burning of a corpse ashes (usually 2 — 2,5 kg) are placed in the capsule (ballot box). Ballot boxes or earth at the cemetery, or immure in special niches in columbaria (the place for storage of ballot boxes).

Burial of the dead in mass graves is allowed, as a rule, in wartime on fields of battles and sometimes at natural disasters. For mass graves the sites meeting the general requirements imposed to places 3 are chosen. at. Graves of the soldiers who fell for the Homeland are arranged, as a rule, in the area, picturesque, convenient for an entrance. After war they become places of visit and an afterfeast of civil honors.

The area of a grave is calculated taking into account that on each corpse not less than 1,2 sq.m (0,6 X 2 m) are required, at placement them in 2 tiers and burial no more than 100 corpses in one grave. Depth of a grave and level of subsoil waters shall be same, as at single burial. At two-story placement of corpses height of land layer between tiers shall be not less than 0,5 m, and distance from an upper tier to the Earth's surface — not less than 1 m. On the sepulchral hill the board is established (a stone, etc.) with a text of number of a grave.

For acceleration of process of a mineralization of corpses at the bottom of a grave arrange a drainage in the form of a circular flute with width and 30 cm in depth with an inclination towards a filtrational well which becomes up to 1 m3 in size to provide a drain of liquid in it. Flutes in a well are filled with the draining material (crushed stone, stones, gravel, brushwood, etc.). Process of a mineralization is promoted also by aeration of a grave, to-ruyu provide two air-channels from boards or the connected poles brought to height of 1 — 1,5 m over the sepulchral hill. The bottom of a grave is covered branches, straw, a cane and other materials. In order to avoid difficulty of a mineralization to make disinfection of a grave and corpses, except for special cases, it is not recommended. Experience of use and a research of soil of cemeteries showed that, despite a nek-ry overload of the soil organic matters, group burial does not represent a dignity for the population. - epid, dangers. Burial is made by special teams. Seniors of teams are obliged to find out and register the identity of the dead in the special book and to precisely specify in it coordinates of a grave. Before burial corpses exempt from overcoats, short fur coats and other warm clothes and whenever possible place in dense paper bags.

Maintenance of an order and registration of mass graves is assigned to local councils of People's Deputies and public organizations of nearby settlements.

Bibliography: Benyamovsky D. N. New crematorium, Municipal economy of Moscow, No. 11, page 41, 1966; Benyamovsky D. N. and Grigoriev T.B. Purification of off-gases after cremation, Nauch. works of the Academician lump. farms of K. D. Pamfilov, century 67, page 109, M., 1970; Experience of the Soviet medicine in the Great Patriotic War of 1941 — 1945, t. 33, page 266, M., 1955; The Guide to utility hygiene, under the editorship of F. G. Krotkov, t. 1, page 591, M., 1961; T and in r about fi-sk y A. L. O some questions of the organization of funeral service, Zdravookhr. Grew. Federations, No. 4, page 36, 1974.

M. G. Shandala; N. F. Koshelev (soldier.).