BULGARIAN STICK (Lactobacterium bulgaricum; synonym: Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Bacterium bulgaricum, Bacterium yoghurti, Thermobacterium bulgaricum) — a bacterium from group of thermophilic, heterofermentative lactic microbes. For the first time B. to the item was allocated in 1903 in I. I. Mechnikov Koandi's laboratory (M. to Cohendy) from the Bulgarian lactic foodstuff of yogurt.
I. I. Mechnikov established that B. the item has antagonistic properties in relation to putrefactive microflora and suggested to use it for fight against the endointoxications resulting from pathological fermentative processes in an intestinal path. As treatment-and-prophylactic means the mechnikovsky curdled milk made by ferment of milk B. of the item is applied to this purpose (in combination with lactic streptococci).
Bps belong to the largest bacteria (length of 15 — 20 microns, width apprx. 1 micron), gram-positive, during the coloring methylene blue metachromatinic granules sometimes come to light; are not mobile, and capsules do not form a dispute, often connect in short chains. Bp — a facultative anaerobe. At fermentation of glucose it is formed in a large number milk to - that (to 3%), acetic to - that, alcohol and carbon dioxide gas (heterofermentation). Optimum of growth within 40 — 45 °.
On usual beef-extract environments B. of the item does not grow that is used for definition of purity of culture. For B.'s cultivation items the most suitable are beef-extract environments with addition of blood serum of animals, whey, glucose or a yeastrel. On the surface of dense nutrient mediums forms fibrous colonies, in the depth of Wednesday grows in a type of lumps of cotton wool. Some strains of B. of the item on the dense environment can form slime.
B.'s identification is carried out by the item on set of morphological, tinktorialny and cultural features.
See also Lactobacilli .
Bibliography: Kvasnikov E. I. and Nesterenko O. A. Lactobacilli and ways of their use, M., 1975; P e - r et L. G. Znacheniye's c of normal microflora for a human body, M., 1955; Topley and Wilson’s principles of bacteriology and immunity, ed. by G. Wilson a. A. Miles, v. 1, Baltimore, 1970.
Yu. K. Fomichev.