BUILDINGS PUBLIC, hygienic requirements — the constructions intended for placement of various institutions and objects of public use. KZ. islands belong institutions of administrative appointment and cultural and mass work, child care and teaching and educational facilities, the highest and average special educational institutions, objects of public catering and trade, to lay down. - professional, institutions, public service establishments of the population, establishment of rest, objects of transport and communication. To 3. lakes can be carried also constructions for holding sports and mass actions.
One of idiosyncrasies 3. the lake — concentration in them a large number of people that can lead to considerable change in them of microclimatic conditions (see. Microclimate ), and also to increase in dust and bacterial impurity of air. Therefore it is necessary to aim at creation and maintenance in them the most favorable conditions for external environment. It is reached by means of a gigabyte. a reasonable internal design of certain rooms, rational interrelation between them, and also by rather good equipment their dignity. - tekhn. devices. Special value in 3. lakes get questions of ventilation (see. Ventilation ).
The general principle of the device of ventilation consists in buildings of public appointment in the direction of flows of air from places with its smallest pollution to places with bigger impurity where the extract of air shall prevail over inflow. It is especially important to provide an effective extract of air in toilets, smoking rooms, cooking rooms of catering departments, etc. In such rooms at design it is necessary to provide only the exhaust ventilation with 5 — 10-fold exchange of air at 1 o'clock.
Other important issue is creation in rooms of public buildings of an optimum temperature schedule that can be reached by means of the corresponding systems heating (see), use of heat-insulating construction materials, sufficient thickness of outside walls. Optimum air temperature in rooms 3. the island hesitates from 18 to 24 ° at relative humidity of 40 — 60% depending on purpose of rooms. In sowing. regions of the country air temperature in rooms shall on 2 — 3 ° be higher owing to lower temperature of outside walls. It is necessary to calculate thickness and heat-insulating properties of outside walls so that temperature of their inner surface did not differ from air temperature indoors more than on 5 — 6 °. Otherwise condensation of water vapors on walls and emergence of dampness is possible. In some 3. air temperature in winter time shall be slightly lower than the lake, than in summer (theaters, movie theaters) since air exchange in rooms and respectively — the speed of the movement of air increases in the summer.
For creation of an optimum temperature schedule arrange the platforms protecting from penetration of outside cold flows of air. In buildings with a large number or a constant rate of visitors (shops, educational institutions, large libraries) in platforms thermal air curtains with heating of the given air are arranged. The optimal solution of a problem of a microclimate in 3. the lake is system air conditionings (see).
Issues of illumination of rooms are resolved differently depending on appointment 3. lake. In some of them the high level of illumination (educational rooms, reading rooms, offices) shall be provided. In the majority of rooms natural illumination is obligatory (see. Lighting ). It is necessary to consider that even at rather good light factor provided in projects 3. the lake, coefficient of natural illumination in them can not correspond to standards since windows often curtain curtains, on window sills put flowers, and also owing to pollution of window glasses. The great value is attached to color finishing of rooms, in a cut shall prevail light tone. Walls in the rooms oriented to
S. are recommended to be painted in warm colors (orange), on Yu. — in colder (blue). Ceilings shall be white, opaque, with coefficient of reflection of 70 — 75%. The coefficient of reflection of walls in rooms at bright lighting shall reach 35 — 40%, in other cases — not less than 50 — 70%. A floor shall reflect not less than 20 — 25% of light. For artificial lighting it is recommended to use fluorescent lamps of daylight which give the chance evenly to light the room. If necessary the combined system of lighting with use of local light sources is recommended to reach high levels of illumination of jobs or exhibits at exhibitions. At the same time the light source shall be screened fittings so that direct light from it did not get into eyes. The combined system of lighting shall provide not less than 10% of illumination in a workplace at the expense of the general sources, otherwise readaptation of eyes at transfer of a look is at a loss aside. On objects with increased requirements to a color rendition (shops selling fabrics, furs, pictures and an exhibition of these goods) it is recommended to apply fluorescent lamps like LDTs or LHB or the mixed lighting by filament lamps and daylight.
Protection against street noise shall be carried out by means of the correct design of quarters and placement 3. the lake (see. the Design of the inhabited places ). Buildings in which it is necessary to provide the minimum levels of noise shall not be located on highways with heavy traffic of transport, shall not face the street a facade directly. Between a facade of the building and the street it is necessary to create protective belts of green plantings. For protection against external noise also thickness of walls of the building and the sound carrying out properties of construction materials, size of the area of windows, existence of a double glazing, sealing of windows, careful seal of seams and joints between building constructions matters. Protection against internal noise and creation of optimal acoustic conditions is reached by noise-protective shielding of the rustling machines and units, their installation on cushion layers from soft and elastic materials, ensuring their soft communication with building constructions. Against distribution of noise inside 3. lakes apply also layered designs of partitions from materials of various density, and also barrier with air gaps or using various fillings between their layers and in places of interface of designs. In rooms where requirements to the acoustic mode are raised (theaters, movie theaters, concert halls), it is necessary to use rationally sound-absorbing and reflecting properties of materials. As much as possible soft materials (carpets, draperies, an acoustical porous tile), and also a soft and plastic coating of floors, the device of the suspended ceilings absorb a sound. Sometimes for the purpose of improvement of the acoustic mode and increase in decorative quality of barriers make perforation of the base facing materials, for to-rymi arrange sound-absorbing screens. In auditoriums with the raised acoustic requirements the bottom of walls up to the height of 2,5 — 3 m in the first row of orchestra seats and a ceiling is done smooth. The size and form of auditoriums are calculated so that the time lag of the first sound reflections coming to the audience did not exceed 30 ms.
Very important gigabyte. the requirement — a rational arrangement of certain rooms for the purpose of creation of threading of the movement of visitors. From the platform visitors shall get to a lobby, wardrobe directly shall adjoin Krom. In clothes it is reasonable to provide threading of the movement of visitors (a separate entrance and an exit) or broad access to a barrier. Extent of a barrier depends on purpose of establishment and the number of visitors: in theaters of 1 m of a barrier it is counted on 30 visitors, in clubs — on 40, in office buildings — on 50. At self-service in clothes (school) width of passes between open hangers shall be not less than 1,5 m in axes. Directly smoking rooms, and also the water-closets equipped with wash basins, the entrance to which should be arranged through locks, shall adjoin a lobby. In buildings with long stay of visitors (educational institutions) bathrooms need to be arranged on each floor (separately for men and women). In the locks conducting to toilets it is reasonable to arrange the self-closed doors. Walls and partitions in bathrooms, washing rooms, and also in shower and preshower up to the height of doorways shall be revetted with easily purified materials which can be washed with hot water using detergents. Above this facing they are painted moisture resistant paints. Shower and preshower shall not adjoin outside walls.
Area and cubic capacity of rooms 3. lakes depend on appointment them and are normalized by the relevant sanitary standards and rules (Construction Norms and Regulations). In office buildings the square at 1 employee in workrooms of basic purpose fluctuates from 4,5 to 12 m 2 , the total area (on the settlement number of employees) is identical — 4 m 2 on the person. In educational classes of schools the area is normalized at the rate of 1,25 m 2 on the pupil, at boarding schools — 1,4 m 2 , in group audiences of higher education institutions — 2,0 mg, in line audiences — from 0,9 to 1,5 m 2 depending on the capacity of audience. The volume of educational rooms in the absence of air conditioning shall make not less than 4 m 3 on the person. In auditoriums, conference rooms for one seat 0,65 — 0,8 m are necessary 2 , in reading rooms of libraries — 2,5 — 3,5 m 2 depending on a design of tables, in trading floors of shops — 2,5 m 2 , and in shops of furniture, musical instruments, home appliances — 3,5 m 2 on the person. The quantity and the area of offices in office buildings is normalized depending on the total area of working rooms and the number of employees. Receptions for visitors at offices are projected not less than 9 m 2 and no more than 18 m 2 . Minimalnaya Square of the sleeping heated rooms in summer camps — 3,5 m 2 on the person, at boarding schools — 4 m 2 , in sanatoria — 6 — 9 m 2 (depending on the sizes of chamber). The size of gyms in sports constructions depends on their category: the big gym is designed by the X X 8(6) m 42 X 24 in size, average — 36 X 18 X 8 (6) m, small — 30 X 18 X 7(6) m.
At schools designing of gyms of the smaller size — 24 X 12 X 6 m is allowed; 18 X 9 X 5,4 m; 12 X 12 X 3 m.
Refer all buildings which height exceeds 9 floors to category of high-rise. For construction of such buildings serious justifications from which main thing — constraint of the territory in the large cities are required. At construction of high-rise buildings the territory is saved that allows to reduce density of building of the inhabited places and consequently, to increase extent of gardening of the territory and to create more favorable conditions for aeration and insolation of buildings. At construction of high-rise buildings there is a row a gigabyte. and engineering problems, the most essential of which is fight against the vertical air flows arising on the course of vertical communications (in staircases, lift mines, refuse chutes etc.). The «effect of draft» arising at the same time creates an opportunity for distribution in the building of contagiums, and also is very dangerous in the fire relation. For providing ought a gigabyte. conditions in rooms of high-rise buildings it is necessary to pay attention to care of seal of cracks in overlappings that air from first floors owing to «effect of draft» did not spread to rooms of overlying floors, and also to need of dominance of forced ventilation for the main rooms. For creation of the best conditions of aeration and insolation high-rise buildings should be placed in rather open territory, and the configuration of the building shall not be closed. The conditioners and other devices generating noise and vibration are recommended to be installed in underground floors or in upper technical floors with the device of «floating floors» and use of suspended designs.
Bibliography: Arkharov I. M. and Naumov S. F. Design of buildings of technical schools and higher education institutions, M., 1973; Blochina N. B., Vikhrov L. T. and Davydova G. M. Preschool institutions, M., 1974, bibliogr.; And about fi-H of Skye. E., etc. Office buildings, M., 1975, bibliogr.; Buildings on railway transport, under the editorship of I. V. Lukashchik, M., 1971, bibliogr.; Korenevskaya E. I. and Rogachevskaya L. G. Hygienic questions of construction of school buildings, M., 1974, bibliogr.; Kremenetskaya A. V. and Palubinskaya V. K. Library buildings, M., 1973; Mashineky V. A. and Kreymer V. F. Sports complexes, M., 1975, bibliogr.; The guide to utility hygiene, under the editorship of F. G. Krotkov, t. 3, M., 1963, bibliogr.
A. A. Velichko.