BUCKTHORN (Frangula) — sort of bushes or small trees this. buckthorn family (Rhamnaceae). In the USSR 3 look grow To. For the medical purposes matters To. olkhovidny (Frangula alnus Mill; Rhamnus frangula L.) — bush or tree 1 — 3 m high. Branches without prickles, with brown silky and pilar kidneys. Bark of young branches red-brown, brilliant, smooth, at old branches and trunks serovatobury, with the lenticels blurring in gray spots. Leaves next with early the falling-down stipules, tselnokrayny, widely elliptic or obovate, dl. 3 — 8 cm, with 7 — 10 couples of poorly curved veins, naked or from below on veins trimmed, with scapes up to 1,5 cm long (fig). Flowers small, bisexual. The fruit is kostyankovidny, juicy, spherical, with three not revealing stones. Seeds beaded, without furrow, acting from an opening in a cover in the form of a coronoid nose. Blossoms in May — June, fructifies in August — September. Meets almost on all European part of the USSR, in the Caucasus, in Kazakhstan and in yuzh. districts of Western Siberia. Grows on edges and glades, on coast of reservoirs, suburbs of swamps and meadows.
As medicinal raw materials use the bark of trunks and branches collected in the spring prior to blossoming. Bark contains antraglikozida, saponins, tannic and other substances. The maintenance of derivatives of anthracene in bark shall make not less than 4,5%. It is necessary to apply only such bark to production of drugs, edges lay not less than 1 year in the dry place or it was subjected to heating at t ° 100 ° within 1 hour.
Drugs of bark To. render laxative effect at the expense of irritation of receptors of thick department of intestines of an antraglikozidama, contained in these drugs. Appoint inside at hron, locks. The effect occurs in 8 — 10 hours after reception. At prolonged use of drugs K. accustoming to them develops and achievement of effect requires increase in their dose. To drugs of bark K. belong: broth of bark K., extract K. liquid, extract K. dry and rhamnil.
For preparation of broth of bark K. one table. l. the crushed bark fill in with a glass of boiled water, boil 20 min., filter, cool. Appoint on a half-glass to night and in the morning.
Extract of a buckthorn liquid (Extractum Frangulae fluidum, GFH) — liquid of dark brown-red color, bitter taste. Appoint 20 — 40 drops to reception.
Extract of a buckthorn dry (Extractum Frangulae siccum, GFH) — small lumps or powder of brown color, bitter taste; possesses a slight peculiar smell. Appoint 1 — 2 tab. before going to bed. Form of release: tablets, coated, on 0,2 2.
Rhamnilum — the dry standardized drug from bark K.; contains not less than 55% of derivatives of anthracene. Inodorous Oranzhevokorichnevy amorphous powder and taste; we will dissolve in water very little. Appoint 1 — 2 tablet before going to bed. Form of release: tablets on 0,05 g.
All drugs K. keep in densely corked bottles in the place protected from light.
See also Purgatives .
Bibliography Mashkovsky M. D. Pharmaceuticals, p.1, page 333, M., 1977; Turova A. D. Medicinal plants of the USSR and their use, page 317, M., 1974.
V. V. Churyukanov.