BROMIDES

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

BROMIDES — group of the drugs containing bromine and having sedative properties; chemically represent salts hydrobromic to - you.

On chemical constitution of B. it is possible to divide on inorganic and organic.

Sodium bromide and potassium bromide belong to inorganic B.; to organic — Bromcamphora, etc.

Like chlorides B. are easily soaked up from intestines in the form of ions and despite lower penetrability through membranes, are quite evenly distributed in an organism. Only in a thyroid gland and kidneys they are found in bigger quantity in comparison with other bodies, and contain in a thyroid gland of B. not only in the form of free ions, but also are partially connected with proteins. Ion concentration of bromine, as well as chlorides, in an intercellular lymph above, than in cells.

B.'s allocation from an organism begins in a few minutes after introduction, but happens very slowly (within several weeks). B. are removed generally through kidneys and partially excretory glands (stalemate, salivary, the lacrimal, bronchial, milk, etc.). Glands of a stomach allocate B. in the form of hydrobromic to - you.

Contents in an organism of chlorides has significant effect on B.'s balance and the speed of their elimination: restriction of reception of chlorides is followed by a delay of removal and B.'s cumulation and, on the contrary, at increase in content of chlorides in food B.'s allocation accelerates. Sedation of B. is caused, obviously, by direct impact of ions of bromine on c. N of page. According to researches of I. P. Pavlov and his employees B. selectively influence brake processes in a cerebral cortex, strengthening and concentrating them. Excitability of nervous cells at the same time does not decrease.

The calming B.'s action is shown by decrease in irritability, affectivity, improvement of mood and a dream, and also weakening of neurotic symptoms. In this regard they are widely applied at neurosises, a neurasthenia, hysteria, a chorea. B. it is possible to use also for treatment of epilepsy. Therapeutic doses of B. from 0,1 to 1 g on reception on 3 — 4 times a day. At epilepsy appoint higher doses (to 6 — 8 g a day). The choice of a dose shall be made individually taking into account type of higher nervous activity of the patient, and also character and the course of a disease. Persons with weak type of higher nervous activity are most sensitive to B. By it appoint usually small doses. B. render local irritant action.

At long reception of B. perhaps chronic poisoning (bromism) which is shown a number of somatic, neurologic and mental disorders. From somatic frustration the catarral phenomena in various bodies (cold, conjunctivitis, bronchitis, a diarrhea) and skin rash, so-called are most frequent. bromoderma (see) — pustular (acne bromica) or, in hard cases, knotty. These phenomena develop usually against the background of drowsiness, an ataxy, decrease in painful sensitivity, hearing, sight, easing of memory and other neurologic frustration.

At emergence of symptoms of a bromism cancel the drug which caused intoxication and appoint sodium chloride (10 — 20 g a day) with a large amount of water (3 — 5 l a day). For the prevention of a bromism it is recommended to accept salt laxative once a week.

Acute poisonings of B. are noted seldom owing to small toxicity of drugs.

B.'s use is contraindicated at a cachexia, anemia, loss of chlorides and dehydration (at pernicious vomiting, a diarrhea), nephrite, hypersensitivity to B., dermatitis.

See also Sedatives .

Mental disorders at poisoning with bromides

At acute poisoning with drugs of bromine in the most hard cases the sopor or a coma which can come to the end with a delirium or a pseudoparalytic syndrome develops. In more mild cases the adynamy, decrease in visual and acoustical perception, painful and tactile sensitivity, perception of time, a memory impairment is noted. The mood is more often lowered, but euphoria is sometimes observed. These disturbances are, as a rule, completely reversible. The same phenomena with a tendency to slow steady increase are observed at the so-called simple bromism characteristic for hron, B. V intoxications these cases along with asthenic and affective symptoms considerably progress dysmnesias as concerning a reproduction of the past, and active storing; the grammatical system of the speech is broken, patients experience difficulties in selection of words. In more hard cases slackness, apathy increases, patients become careless, slovenly. From acute psychopathological symptoms for hron, intoxications the delirium with the stsenopodobny visual hallucinations which are quite often combined with acoustical more rare tactile, olfactory and flavoring hallucinations is characteristic; the phenomena micro and macropsias, optiko-vestibular disturbances are sometimes observed.

Treatment

Disintoxication therapy in a complex with psychotropic drugs.

See also Intoksikatsionny psychoses .


Bibliography: Verkhovskaya I. N. Bromine in an animal organism and the mechanism of its action, M., 1962, bibliogr.; Krylov O. A. To a question of the mechanism of effect of bromine, Fiziol, zhurn. USSR, t. 46, No. 10, page 1258, 1960, bibliogr.; Mashkovsky M. D. Pharmaceuticals, p.1, page 35, M., 1972; Petrova M. K. The latest data on the mechanism of effect of salts of bromine on higher nervous activity and about their therapeutic use on the experimental bases, M., 1935, bibliogr.

Mental disorders at poisoning B.— B of l and N about in G. M. and Hoffman Д.^Я. To a question of the mental disturbances caused by abuse of the drugs containing bromine in book: Alcoholism and toxicomanias, under the editorship of I. I. Lukomsky, page 195, M., 1968; Muller D. J. Bromide intoxication continues to occur, Texas Med., v. 64, p. 72, 1968; Rollins R. L. a. With e f a 1 u S. J. Bromide ingestion in alcoholics, N. C. med. J., v. 29, p. 342, 1968.

V. K. Muratov; I. I. Lukomsky (psikhiat.).

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