BREAD, BAKERY PRODUCTS. Bread
— the foodstuff received by baking of the dough made from rye, wheat is more rare than corn, barley flour, water, a biological or chemical baking powder, sometimes with addition of malt, oat or soy flour, fatty and dairy products. Bakery products — foodgrain and products of its processing: flour (see), grain (see), bran, and also baked flour dough products: crackers, steering-wheels, crispbread, breadsticks, ship's biscuits, etc., intended for consumption without after-treatment.
Prevalence and availability of the main raw materials to preparation of bread and bakery products in industrial and house conditions, high and various tastes, ability rather long to keep food properties caused the leading place of these products in food of the vast majority of people of the world. Daily consumption of bread usually makes 300 — 600 g on the person and depends on feeding habits, traditions and habits, economic, climatic conditions and other factors.
BREAD, BAKERY PRODUCTS 553
Assume that the way of production of bread from the acid test was open in Ancient Egypt. The manufacturing techniques of bread consist of a batch of the test or a support with addition of a baking powder — yeast (see), ferments of lactobacilli (see), yeast powders (baking soda, ammonium carbonate, etc.), processes of dough fermentation, molding of products, pastries, at to-rykh there is a swelling of starch (see), proteins (see), formation of carbon dioxide gas, milk and others organic to - t, flavoring and aromatic substances, removal of moisture, formation of structure.
Processing of wheat flour nek-ry oxidizers, in particular potassium bromate (to 40 mg on 1 kg of flour), improves its baking properties and allows to receive bread of more white color. The overdose of oxidizers can have an adverse effect on contents in bread of Bx vitamin. Quality of bread improves at addition in a support or dough of surfactants: mono - and diglycerides fat to - t, phosphatides, stearilmoloch-ache to - you, the modified starches (see. Nutritional supplements).
Grades of white bread differ from grades rye in lighter color of a crumb (white, light gray) and crusts, bigger elasticity and porosity, smaller acidity, taste and aroma. Rye bread is a favourite food stuff of the population of the majority of regions of our country and figures prominently in the general production of bread in the USSR. In a number of the regions of the USSR, hl. obr. southern, and in many foreign countries generally bake wheaten grades of bread.
Nutrition value of bread is defined by its chemical structure (see Foodstuff, table 1), a grinding of flour, a compounding, way of pastries. On average at the expense of bread daily receipt of 25 — 35 g of protein, 150 — 200 g of carbohydrates, 800 — 1000 kcal, a considerable part of B2 V1ch vitamins (see Riboflavinum) and RR (see Niacin), and also iron, phosphorus and other mineral substances is provided (see). Bread from coarse flour with the high content of bran has rather more proteins, vitamins, mineral substances. So-called rich products are characterized by the increased content of fat and sugar.
Proteins of bread contain all irreplaceable amino acids (see). However the content of irreplaceable amino acids of a lysine and threonine in them is not enough. Therefore for increase biol. values of proteins add the products rich with a lysine to bread (see) and threonine (see), napr, soy flour or proteinaceous drugs from soy, milk skim milk, etc. Addition of 10% of proteinaceous drug from soy to wheat flour increases the maintenance of a lysine in bread almost twice, addition of 20% of milk skim milk increases the maintenance of a lysine in 1V2 of time, and also leads to increase in content of threonine.
Carbohydrates (see) in bread are presented to hl. obr. starch (contents in bread apprx. 30 — 40%), a small amount mono - and disaccharides (to 3%), polysaccharides, cellulose (0,1 — 2%) and hemicellulose (2 — 4%). Cellulose and gemitsellyulo
for, almost indigestible in went. - kish. a path, promote motive function of intestines (see Polysaccharides).
Bread — a source of vitamins of Vkh (0,1 — 0,2 mg in 100 g), B2 (0,05 — 0,12 mg in 100 g) and RR (0,6 — 2,8 mg in 100 g). It contains as well mineral substances: sodium (350 — 600 mg in
100 g), potassium (65 — 200 mg in 100 g), magnesium (10 — 65 mg in 100 g), phosphorus (65 — 220 mg in 100 g), iron (1 — 4 mg in 100 g), calcium (20 — 40 zhg in 100 g).
For increase in nutrition value of bread, especially from wheat flour of the premiums, flour is enriched with B1 vitamins? B2 and PP, and also nek-ry mineral substances, hl. obr. calcium. Increase in content of calcium in bread is reached by introduction to dough of dairy products or calcium or calcium lactate. Ways of enrichment of bread are developed by iron, iodine and other mineral substances. It matters at a lack of mineral substances of a diet.
Comprehensibility of bread depends on content of bran in it: the it is less in flour of bran, the comprehensibility of bread is better. Proteins of white bread are acquired for 85 — 92%, carbohydrates — for 96 — 98%. Feedstuffs of rye bread are acquired worse, than wheat.
For to lay down. food release special grades of bread with the increased content of certain feedstuffs or, on the contrary, partially deprived of them. Bread with the increased content of cellulose (see Cellulose) is developed, adding whole shredded grain (Health bread) or bran (bread Barvikha, a small loaf doctor's). These grades of bread recommend to the persons inclined to completeness, locks, and also people of advanced age. For patients with a diabetes mellitus produce bread with the lowered content of carbohydrates and the increased content of proteins. For development of these grades of bread use wheat flour and a crude gluten in the ratio 1:3 (proteinaceous white bread, crackers) or bran and a crude gluten in the ratio 1:4 (belkovootrubny bread, crackers), sometimes add saccharin (see). For patients with hyperacid gastritis and a peptic ulcer bake rolls and crackers with lowered in 1V2 of time and more acidity in comparison with usual grades of white bread. For the persons having diseases of kidneys and cardiovascular system, needing restriction of sodium chloride (see) develop ^бессолевые (akhloridny) grades of bread, crackers, sushka. Usually enter the increased amount of whey into bread of these grades. For persons with diseases of kidneys, the Crimea restriction of proteins in food is shown, make protein-free bread of wheat or potato starch with addition 8 — 10% of the modified (bulking-up) corn starch, 20% of maltose treacle, a small amount of surfactants.
The bread and bakery products going on sale shall conform to requirements of standards (state standard specifications) completely. The main indicators of quality of bread are humidity, porosity of a crumb, кис^ a lotnost, and for crackers, ship's biscuits also a namokayemost. Humidity rye and rye ptpenichnogo bread shall not exceed 45 — 53%, wheaten 40 — 48%. Porosity of a crumb of rye bread shall be not less than 57 — 45% of volume, and for wheaten grades — 70 — 50% of volume. Porosity of bread promotes its best digestion. Acidity shall not exceed 3 — 7i for white bread and 7 — 12 ° for rye. Non-compliance with this requirement negatively influences taste and aroma of bread.
At storage of bread its tastes and nutrition value decrease a little. It is connected with processes of a cherstveniye (begins in 1 — 2 days) and drying of bread; it becomes inelastic, krosh-kovaty, the crust loses gloss and fragility. Cherstveny bread — result difficult physical. - chemical, colloid and chemical E'zmenenpy carbohydrates and proteins. Is less subject cherstveshpo rye bread. Addition in dough of fat, phosphatides and nek-ry other substances, fermental drugs (see. Nutritional supplements), and also tight packaging and freezing of bread detain a cherstveniye and drying.
554 BAKING PRODUCTION
there are ways of conservation of bread providing preservation its food and tastes for a long time: thermal sterilization of well packed svezhevypechenny bread, packaging of bread in impregnated with fungicides, napr, sorbic to - that, a wrapper, surface processing of bread alcohol with the subsequent packaging in vapor-tight paper or a film, baking of bread in cans with the subsequent roll-in. Grain canned food are also crackers, ship's biscuits, crispbread and other dry bakery products.
All manipulations with bread during transportation, storage and sale shall exclude its pollution, including bacterial. Transportation of bread is made in purely washed up containers or trays on special motor transport. Storage of bread in shops, at catering establishments, etc. is carried out in specially allocated well ventilated rooms at room (not higher than 25 °) temperature. A shelf-life of white bread — 24 hours, rye and rye and wheat — the 36th hour. For protection against flies also raise dust bread cover with a gauze or other easily erased fabrics. Crackers store in boxes or kraft-bags, ship's biscuits — in boxes at the room temperature and relative humidity of air no more than 75%. Warranty periods of storage are established for - crackers from several months to
1 year, for ship's biscuits in tight packaging 2 years, in untight packaging and weighed out — from 3 weeks to
6 months (depending on a grade of ship's biscuits).
Damage of bread at storage can be caused in 3 — 6 days as a result to a crust and in a crumb of mold fungi (see the Mould). Most often bread is surprised fungi of the sorts Penicillium, Aspergillus (see), Mucor. At the wrong storage crackers and other bakery products can grow mouldy. Sometimes bread is surprised chromogenic bacteriums of Serratia marcescens («a wonderful stick»), to-rye form mucous spots of blood-red color on its surface. If white bread is stored in conditions of high humidity and temperature (35 — 40 °), in it can develop you. mesentericus («a potato stick») causing potato, or viscous, a disease of bread. Under influence amilo-and the proteolytic enzymes emitted by «a potato stick» there is a destruction of starch and protein of bread, its structure is broken: the crumb darkens, becomes wet and sticky, gains off-flavor, at a razlamyvaniye of a crumb colourless sticky threads last. For the prevention of bacterial damages of its bread it is necessary to cool quickly (during 2 — 3 hours after pastries). The mold fungi and bacteria striking bread, not pathogens for the person, however such bread it is unsuitable for consumption owing to considerable deterioration in organoleptic qualities. At the same time the bread baked of the flour contaminated by mycotoxins (see Miko toxicoses), noxious plants (see), without having external signs of damage, it can be toxic.
Dignity. - a gigabyte. control of conditions of production, transportations and sales of bread carry out bodies of the State sanitary inspection (see) according to the existing instructions and standards. Special attention is paid on quality of the flour used in bread baking. Indicators of quality and nutrition value of bread and bakery products — humidity, acidity, porosity, organoleptic properties, etc. — are investigated in laboratories of sanitary and epidemiologic stations (see) by means of organoleptic, physical, chemical and other methods.
See also Foodstuff. Bibliography: Auerman JI. Ya. Tekhnologiya of baking production, M., 1972; Goryacheva A. F. and Kuzminsky R. V. Preservation of freshness of bread, M., 1983; Kretovich V. JI. and Tokareva of R. R. Problem of food full value of bread, M., 1978; Pokrovsky A. A. A role of biochemistry in development of science about food, M., 1974; Chemical composition of foodstuff, under the editorship of M. F. Nesterin and I. M. Skurikhin, page 44, M., 1979; Chemical composition of foodstuff, under the editorship of A. A. Pokrovsky, page 28, M., 1976; Chizhova K. N. and d river. Technical and chemical control of baking production, M., 1975; Shcher-batenko V. V. Regulation of technological processes of manufacture of bread and increase in its quality, M., 1976.
A. N. Zaytsev.