BODY WEIGHT — one of the most important indicators of physical development of the person. Century of t. the morph, and fiziol depends on age (tab. 1), properties of an organism and allows to judge the state of health relatively.
Various changes of V. of t are noted. at people of a different constitution. At dolikhomorfny men the maximum weight is observed in 26 — 35 years, then there is a weight reduction. At brachymorphic and mesomorphic men weight increases up to 45 — 55 years and only then decreases. The maximum of weight at dolikho-and brachymorphic women is reached in 41 — 50 years — later, than at the mesomorphic women getting the maximum weight by 36 — 40 years. At advanced age of V. of t. decreases.
These or those changes of V. of t. occur also depending on physical. loadings and pathological processes in an organism. E.g., V.'s increase of t. it is observed at unlimited food, some types of disbolism or activity of hemadens (obesity, Itsenko's syndrome — Cushing, etc.) - V.'s decrease of t. it can be caused by a hyponutrient, disorder of functions of digestive organs, nek-ry endocrine and exchange diseases, heavy infections, malignant new growths, diseases of c. N of page.
It is necessary to distinguish from the average arithmetic size received at inspection of a certain age group of the population and characterizing so-called normal weight so-called ideal, or optimum, weight, at Krom is expected the greatest life expectancy. It is considered that optimum weight is always lower than normal; according to H. Ott, to optimum weight most there corresponds the average weight of 25-year-old.
By means of various biochemical, methods it is possible to judge precisely absolute amounts of various tissues of body at the living person and their ratio. In usual anthropometry theoretical formulas of fractionation of V. of t are used., though the last allow to allocate only two components: fat and the fat-free body weight.
Determine V. by t. (weigh) standing on medical scales. For calculation of normal weight many formulas are offered; especially widely apply the so-called rosto-weight indexes characterizing normal body weight concerning length of a body. Brock's index concerns to them: from growth (see) will read 100, t. e. P = L — 100, where P — the weight (kg), L — growth. For people of higher growth corrections of this form are offered: so, across Brugsh, normal weight is equal to L — 100 with a height of 155 — 165 cm, L — 105 with a height of 165 — 175 cm and L — 110 with a height more than 175 cm. Across Bekkert, normal weight is equal to L — 103 with a growth to 165 cm, L — 106 with a height from 166 to 175 cm and L — 110 with a height more than 175 cm.
According to V. S. Shugayev and A. D. Ostrovsky (1930), normal weight is equal 0,308 lengths of a body costing +0,346 lengths of a body sitting +0,838 circles of a thorax — 93,419. According to M. Ya. Breytman (1932), optimum weight is equal 0,35 lengths of a body costing +1,4 circles of a thorax — 115. According to Hebs's formula for calculation of normal weight 4/5 kg on each centimeter of growth of St. 150 cm, i.e. P = 55+4/5 (L — 150) by kg where P — normal weight, L — growth are added to 55 kg.
For V.'s definition t. so-called nomograms are offered, and also the so-called conditional indicator of volume of a skeleton (CIVS) which is characterized by sum of products of squares of circles of three long bones (femoral, big tibial, humeral) at their lengths (Debets G. F. is used.). Optimum weight, according to Ott, is equal for women And - 2/5 (And — 52) and for men And - 1/5 (And — 52) where And — the weight calculated on Brock's index without correction.
The body weight of the child is rather objective and his convenient indicator physical development (see) and degrees of fatness since increase of body weight at healthy children goes preferential at the expense of not fatty component that corresponds to increase in quantity of cells and cytoplasmatic weight in the developing bodies and fabrics. Century of t. as the anthropometrical indicator has the largest range of changes in the period of the childhood (during the active growth of V. of t. increases more than by 20 times) that allows to use measurements of weight at children for control of their health and development even for small time slices. So, in practice of overseeing by children of chest age widely use monthly, weekly and even daily weighing. At such control special attention shall be paid to technology of weighing and training of the child for it.
Weigh the baby on special cup (children's) scales which shall be carefully adjusted and verified (see. Scales ). The child is weighed in the morning, before the first feeding, always in the same hours; in previously weighed diaper wrap absolutely undressed child and put (up to 7 — 8 months) or put on a middle part of a weight tray; subtract the weight of a diaper from the received weight. 2 years are more senior than children weigh on medical lever scales like Fairbanks also undressed. in the morning before meal.
Century of t. at children increases unevenly on the separate age periods. In the first month of life the weight increase makes only 400 — 600 g, i.e. it is much less, than in the next several months that partially reflects imperfection of physiological functions of the newborn, partially is a consequence of volume braking of increase in V. of t. in the pre-natal period. Most weight for the 2nd month of life — to 900 — 1200 g increases. In the next months and years (till the period of puberty) there is a decrease in weight increases.
Increase in weight concerning growth of the child minimum at the age of 1 — 4 years when on each centimeter of growth body weight increases only by 200 — 250 g. In the next years the increase of weight gradually increases by centimeter of growth and reaches 800 — 900 g.
Diagnostic value of assessment of weight of the child is very big. Excess or insufficient weight can indicate as disturbances of food of quantitative or qualitative character, and endocrine diseases. Essential weight reduction can be observed at the children having diseases went. - kish. a path, kidneys, a liver, etc., and also at malignant new growths. Value of weight standards for identification of the children having obesity is especially big.
Assessment of weight of the child is made according to tables of standard sizes of weight for this age, separately for boys and girls (tab. 2, 3). For assessment of weight of the child of his growth use tables of standards physical. the development applied in our country. If at the child the deviation from the standard at 1,5 — 2,0 sizes of a devirage quadratic deviation is noted (σ), then discrepancy of weight is considered probable; it is considered convincing if it exceeds 2,0 — 2,5 deviations.
During the post-war period the clear tendency to reduction of distinctions in characteristics of body weight of children in the certain countries and geographical zones is observed. It arises during acceleration physical. development, edges are noted in all countries, but most clearly it is visible where already rather mass anthropometrical measurements of children (are taken long ago see. Acceleration ).
See also Anthropometry .
Table 1. BODY WEIGHT (&vnbsp; kg) MEN AND WOMEN DEPENDING ON AGE have (Moscow)
a M — an arithmetic average of weight; σ — devirage quadratic deviation; &m (M) nbsp; and m (σ) — mean errors of the corresponding parameters.
Table 2. WEIGHT of CHILDREN (&vnbsp; d) FIRST THREE YEARS of LIFE (Moscow, 1972)
Table 3. WEIGHT of CHILDREN (&vnbsp; kg) 4-17 YEARS (Moscow, 1972)
- Average sizes.
- Devirage quadratic deviations.
Bibliography: Grimm G. Fundamentals of constitutional biology and anthropometry, the lane with it., M., 1967; D e e of c of G. F. Experience of determination of weight of living people by the sizes of long bones, in book: 7th Mezhdunarodn. kongr. antropol. and ethnographic sciences, page 1, M., 1964; Zhdanov D. A. inikityuk B. A. Age changes of length and body weight and a circle of a thorax at the modern adult, the population of Moscow, Arkh. annate., gistol, and embriol., t. 46, No. 3, page Y8, 1964, bibliogr.; Zeltslera. The reasons and forms of manifestation of the accelerated growth of children, the lane with it., M., 1968, bibliogr.; L e-viant S. M. Physical development of children of preschool and school age, L., 1964; Methodical indications for standards of physical development of children of Moscow from the birth up to 17 years, M., 1972.
V. G. Zilov; I. M. Vorontsov (ped.).