From Big Medical Encyclopedia

BODY (Greek organon the tool, body) — to a certain extent the isolated part of a complete organism performing certain specific functions. Organ level of the organization of living matter — a step in evolution of living beings.

O.'s education is historically preceded by cellular formations or organoid educations in cells (organella). O.'s emergence in evolution of metazoans — a necessary consequence of accumulation of quantitative changes and premises of further development of an organism. Usually O. consists of one (naira., a bone) or several (e.g., a stomach) the main fabrics, with to-rymi other fabrics are connected. Cells, intercellular substance, circulatory and limf, vessels, nerves can be elements O. The lake is not only a form of association of diverse elements on the basis of performance of the general function, but also way of their integration. Are inherent in each O. functional and morfol, specificity.

In genesis of complete organism (see) internally necessary connection and morfofunktsionalny signs of O. are established (specificity, reliability, orderliness of elements, plasticity, etc.).

Each O. performs certain functions and is a discrete link of a sistekhma. So, in system of digestive organs integrally the bodies which are functionally supplementing each other are also consistently connected: teeth, throat, gullet, stomach, guts, pancreas, liver. In other systems of continuous anatomic communication between O. can not exist (e.g., in system of bodies of incretion). In O.'s very tectonics specifics are expressed it funkts. Structural elements of many O. are the stroma making a soft skeleton of O., and a parenchyma — specific fabric of body. The stroma consists of cells and the fibers of connecting fabric forming tyazh or plates, between to-rymi elements of a parenchyma (muscular tissue in muscles, an epithelium in glands, nervous tissue in nerve knots and in a brain), and also elements of circulatory, lymphatic and nervous systems lie. Specific O.' stroma has characteristic structural funktsio-nalnye features (organ specificity). The unity of a stroma and parenchyma provides performance by body certain to function.

In total O. can be divided on parenchymatous (e.g., a spleen) and hollow (e.g., a stomach, a uterus, a bladder).

Especially allocate internal, or visceral, bodies. Provisional, pl temporary distinguish also O. (available for a germ), to-rye precede definitivny O., i.e. finally created on a structure and function. In intravital changes of O. their adaptation to conditions of the environment is shown.

Bibliography: Kupriyanov V. V. Lectures on the general anatomy, century 4, Yaroslavl, 1978.

V. V. Kupriyanov.