From Big Medical Encyclopedia

BODIES OF THE MOVEMENT — the vocational educations providing active movement of all body and its parts in space and also maintenance of a pose. Lakes of are a part of a musculoskeletal system in which at vertebrata distinguish the bones relating to its passive part — to a skeleton (see), and muscles (see) — an active part. Thanks to ability to reduction of a muscle set in motion bone links of a skeleton therefore there is a change of a relative positioning of parts of a body and its movement in space (locomotion).

During the performance of any movement not one muscle, and works a little; at the same time one muscles are reduced shortened), and others relax (are extended). In funkts, the relation of a muscle share on antagonists and synergists. Muscles or the groups of muscles participating in the opposite movements concern to antagonists (e.g., flexor muscles and extensor muscles). Consensually working muscles which are taking part in the same movement (e.g., in bending or in extension), are called Synergists. Depending on the nature of the movement the same pairs of muscles can act as synergists, as antagonists. Approval of reduction and relaxation of antagonistic muscles and synergistic muscles as well as management in general of O.'s work as, is carried out nervous system (see).

According to specifics of the habitat and ways of locomotions (see. Movements ) in the course of evolution at animals different O. were created by. So, at the elementary O. serve, e.g., as a pseudopodium at amoebas, an eyelash at infusorians at the ciliary movement, flagellums At flagellates, etc. At metazoans, the movements to-rykh result preferential from reduction of muscles, separate parts of a body act as O. as (e.g., fins and a tail at fishes, extremities at arthropod and land vertebrate animals). An important stage in O.'s development by was emergence at animals firm and at the same time mobile thanks to to joints (see) a skeleton and cross-striped muscular tissue (see) that provided high specialization extremities (see) depending on ways of locomotions. During the change by representatives of various classes of vertebrata of one habitat with another in the course of evolution in their O. of essential changes appeared. So, upon transition of land animals to a water way of life of their extremity were transformed to flippers and gained looking alike fins of fishes. Upon transition of animals (e.g., birds, bats) to a litany their front extremities turned into wings.

Change of character of locomotions at the ancestors of the person who passed to bipedalism played an extremely important role O.'s specializations by of the person. Upper extremities turned from bodies of locomotions and a support into the high-differentiated body adapted for performance of difficult labor movements. The lower extremities perform the main locomotory and basic functions.

Diseases and damages of bodies of the movement — see. Bone , Muscles , Joints , and also articles devoted to separate segments of extremities (see. Hip , Shin , Brush , Shoulder , Forearm , Foot ), to joints (see. Ankle joint , Knee joint , Elbow joint , Radiocarpal joint , Shoulder joint , Hip joint ), to separate nosological forms (e.g., Anchylosis ; Dislocations ; Drives ; Contracture ; Paralyses, paresis ; Changes etc.).

Bibliography: V. P's sparrows. Anthropotomy, t. 1, M., 1932; And in An and c to and y M. F. Anthropotomy, t. 1, M., 1965; Tittel K. Beschrei-bende und funktionelle Anatomie des Men-schen, Stuttgart — N.Y., 1978.

V. I. Kozlov.