From Big Medical Encyclopedia

BOARDING SCHOOL — educational teaching and educational institution in which children are round the clock during the entire period of training. In some cases the children who are on contents in Sh. - and., can live in families. Along with comprehensive school Sh. - and. carries out general secondary education, creates Marxist-Leninist outlook, provides education of the healthy, harmoniously developed younger generation. Boarding schools were widely adopted since 1956.

For improvement of system of comprehensive and vocational school solutions of April (1984) have huge value. A plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the first session

of the Supreme Council of the USSR of the eleventh convocation, the Resolution of Council of ministers of the USSR «About general education boarding schools, orphanages and other residential care facilities» (1984). According to this resolution general education Sh. are created - and. following types: 1) Highway - and. the general type for the children who do not have necessary conditions of education in a family; 2) orphanages and Sh. - and. for orphan children and children without parental support; 3) recreational sanatorium country boarding schools, sanatorium Sh. - and. for children with various diseases, sanatorium orphanages; 4) special Sh. - and. and orphanages for the children who are lagging behind in physical or intellectual development that interferes with their training at usual comprehensive school; 5) specialized Sh. - and. for training of children in the field of science, art and sport, and also special Sh. - and. with profound studying of Russian; 6) nursing homes at comprehensive schools and at high special music and art schools.


General education Sh. - and. the general type will be organized with a complete set of classes in the presence of not less than 280 pupils, and in the region of the Far North and areas equated to them — not hmeny 120.

In general education Sh. - and. the general type the number of pupils of the I—VIII classes shall make no more than 35 and IX—X (XI) classes — 30 people in a class. In special Sh. - and. for the children who are lagging behind in physical or intellectual development, the number of pupils decreases to 25, 20, 16 or 12 people depending on a profile of establishment. In general education Sh. - and. the general type the children needing public education under the terms of life, work, to the state of health of parents are accepted first of all. In special Sh. - and. reception of children is made in the order determined by the Ministry of Public Education of the USSR in coordination with the Ministry of Health of the USSR.

Highway - and. are located, as a rule, in standard buildings with

site 2,5 — 2,8 hectares in the most well-planned zones of the inhabited places. Site Sh. - and. it has to be planted well trees and shrubs (not less than 50%), to have a sports and educational-experimental zone, recreation areas and economic. Sh.'s rooms - and. combine in complexes depending on appointments: educational (classes, offices, laboratories with an area at the rate of 1,4 — 1,8 sq.m on the pupil, recreational halls, rooms for labor training and vocational guidance, group of educational and sports rooms); sleeping rooms (bedrooms, drawing rooms, bathrooms, shower, rooms of hygiene of girls, rooms for cleaning of clothes and footwear); rooms of cultural and mass appointment (the assembly hall, library with a reading room, rooms for kruzhkovy occupations, preparation of lessons, rest, the room of public organizations); group of rooms of the servicing appointment (administrative rooms, the electrical power unit and the medical block). The area sleeping is provided at the rate of 4 sq.m on the person. The electrical power unit consists of the lunch hall at the rate of 0,75 sq.m on one seat, a washroom and kitchen with a full range of utility rooms. The medical aid station will be organized as the insulator. Are its part: an office of the doctor and a dental surgery, a room for medical procedures, chambers, 2 isolated blocks, buffet - distributing, a bathroom, a toilet. At boarding schools of Far North it is provided fotariya (16 — 36 sq.m).

Highway - and. are under authority of bodies of national education. Directs all activity of Sh. - and. the director having the higher pedagogical education. The states Sh. - and. are presented by group of teachers (teachers, tutors), administrative, medical personnel, employees of catering department. In special Sh.' states - and. depending on their appointment are in addition provided: teacher-speech pathologist, teacher-logopedist, musical worker (head of rhythmic occupations), instructor of LFK, massage therapists, night nurses. Special Sh. - and. for children with various deviations in physical or intellectual development along with problem solving in education, general education and labor training of pupils carry out work on correction and compensation of shortcomings of development and the state of health of children.

The organization and Sh.'s activity - and. the general type it is carried out according to «The standard provision on general education boarding school», in special Sh. - and. — according to «The standard provision

on special boarding school», the approved relevant orders of the Ministry of Public Education of the USSR.

For rendering to lay down. - the prof. of the help to pupils in Sh. - and. positions of pediatricians and nurses on individual states of the Ministries of Public Education of federal republics are established.

In a duty of the pediatrician Sh. - and. enters: the organization and performing medical examinations of pupils, definition of medical group for occupations physical culture, appointment necessary medical ozdoro-vitelnykh actions; control of the mode of study, physical training, labor training, catering services, carrying out dignity. - a gigabyte. and anti-epidemic actions; holding actions for vocational guidance of pupils taking into account a condition of their health; performing outpatient appointment of pupils and rendering medical aid by the person in need; ensuring regular medical overseeing by dispensary group of patients, the organization of their improvement, including directly in Sh. - and.; carrying out dignity. - a gleam, works among personnel, pupils and parents; carrying out work on prevention of traumatism; observation and treatment of the children who are in the insulator.

Paramedical staff of Sh. - and. works under the leadership of the doctor and carries out all his appointments. In a duty of average medics of Sh. - and. enters: assistance to doctors in performing medical examinations of pupils; maintaining the medical documentation established by the Ministry of Health of the USSR; bringing to data of pedagogical personnel of results of medical examinations of children and recommendations of the pediatrician and other specialists; control of catering services, gigabyte. conditions of education and training of pupils, observance dignity. - a gigabyte. and the anti-epidemic mode, implementation of health requirements to catering department, passing of obligatory medical examinations by Sh.'s personnel - and.; carrying out preventive inoculations by the pupil at the scheduled time, overseeing by the children who were in contact with infectious patients; carrying out together with the doctor of outpatient appointment of pupils; carrying out with pupils of occupations in sanitary circles, implementation of preparation a dignity. posts; carrying out work on prevention of traumatism; account and storage of stock, medicines, inoculative material, their timely replenishment.

According to orders of the Ministry of Health of the USSR bodies and healthcare institutions are obliged to send pediatricians and average medics for completing of the corresponding positions to Sh. - and., to provide these institutions with medicines, the medical equipment, tools, bacteritic drugs, disinfectants; to carry out work on medical examination of pupils of Sh. - and., to provide carrying out 2 times in a year of profound medical examinations of children by pediatricians and other specialists; to provide timely hospitalization of the pupils needing hospitalization, the fault-free direction in children's sanatoria of all pupils of Sh. - and., needing a sanatorium therapy; to organize systematic professional development of health and pedagogical workers of Sh. - and. concerning the correct development and health protection of children.

Bibliography: Hygienic questions of boarding school, under the editorship of S. M. Grombakh, M., 1964; Educational and educational work in a school nursing home, under the editorship of Yu. V. Grebnev and V. P. Krykalov, M., 1980; P l about t to both N to M. M. and Tsyp r-with to and y V. G. Keeping and organization of educational work in boarding school, M., 1982.

N. G. Dyachkova, JI. V. Druzhinina.