The BLACK SEA COAST OF THE CAUCASUS — a seaside zone of the Black Sea coast, on a cut climatic, klimatobalneologichesky and klimatobalneogryazevy resorts and resort agglomerations of Krasnodar Krai of RSFSR (from Anapa to Sochi), Abkhazian and Adzharian are located the ASSR (from Gantiadi to Batumi). One of the largest resort regions of the country.
Limited from the West to the Black Sea, and from the North and the East — Greater Caucasus Range and its spurs, Ch. of the item. To. possesses exclusively favorable for a dignity. - hens. treatment and recreational rest by climatic conditions (subtropical climate, warm non-freezing sea, abundance of evergreen vegetation, variety of picturesque mountain and seaside landscapes, curative dirt and mineral springs of various chemical structure).
In the territory of Ch. of the item. To. the following resorts and resort groups are located: Anapa (see); Gelen-
dzhiksky group of resorts (see) — Gelendzhik, the Kabardian, Arkhipo-Osipovka, Dzhankhot, Divnomorsky; The Tuapse group of resorts (see) — Tuapse, Dzhubga, Novomikhaylovskoye, Olgink, Deep, Nebug, Kadosh, Gizel-Dera, Dederkaya, Shepsi; Sochi (see) — Adler, Ashe, to Makopsa, Kudepsta, Lazarevskoye, Matsesta, Uch-Dera, Magri, Loo, Krasnaya Polyana, Golovinka, Council-Kvadzhe; Gantiadi; Leselidze; Gagra and (see); Pitsunda (see); Gudauta; New Athos (see); The Sukhumi group of resorts (see) — Sukhumi, Agudzer, Gulrip-sha, Besleti, Gumist, Eshera; Anak-liya; The Batumi group of resorts (see) — Batumi, Kobuleti, Makhind-zhauri, Tsikhisdziri, Cape Verde (tsvetn. the tab., Art. 240, fig. 1 — 12).
Climatic features of separate groups of resorts depend on height of Greater Caucasus Range and its spurs limiting a coastal zone from the North and the East. On this sign all Ch. of the item. To. it is possible to divide into two districts: Northwest — from Anapa to Tuapse and Youzhny — from Tuapse to Batumi. The northwest district is protected by the low mountains opening access strong having sat down. - vost. to winds; in process of advance to the South height of a mountain ridge increases (apprx. 1500 m near Tuapse), also character of winds respectively changes — they become more moderate and warm. The district differs in arid warm climate. The southern district is limited to the high mountains which are close rising to the sea (apprx. 3000 m near Sochi and apprx. 4000 m near Sukhumi), to-rye close access to dry continental winds and detain a humid air from the sea. This district is characterized by humid subtropical climate. Winter in the Northwest district soft, in Youzhny — very soft, the warmest in the country (average temperature of January 6 °). Snow cover is unstable, keeps within several days or hours. On the site between Novorossiysk and Tuapse invasion from the North of cold mass of air is quite often observed in the winter that causes short-term fall of temperature, snowfall. The summer is long, very warm (average temperature of July in the Northwest district 23 °, in the Southern district 24 °). Intensity of solar radiation high, number of hours of sunshine reaches 2300 a year. An amount of precipitation in a year in the Northwest district apprx. 500 mm, in Youzhny — to 2500 mm.
The abundance of solar radiation and moisture cause a variety and richness of vegetation, especially in the southern part of the region. Vegetation is presented by generally subtropical broad-leaved woods (a chestnut, a hornbeam, a beech, an oak, etc.) with evergreen bushes in an underbrush and parks; there are numerous plantings of a citrus, vineyards, plantations of tea. Sights of resorts of Ch. of the item. To. are the Tree nursery park to the Sochi, the Sukhumi botanic garden, the Batumi botanic garden possessing the richest collections of representatives of subtropical and tropical flora, Caucasus Biosphere Reserve with tisosamshito-howl a grove in Khosta, the reserve Pitsundo-Myus-sersky with a unique grove of a relic Pitsunda pine.
A season of sea bathings on Ch. of the item. To. 5 — 6 months in a year proceed (from May to November). The swimming season near Gagra is most long (up to 200 days). Temperature of sea water in August reaches to 29 °, in October — to 19 °. Climatic conditions of Ch. of the item. To. create ample opportunities for carrying out an active climatotherapy within almost all year. Climate — the main to lay down. factor of all resorts of Ch. of the item. K.
Along with climate resort resources Ch. of the item. To. are presented by mineral waters and dirt. One of the largest mud resorts is Anapa having fields of sulphidic silt mud (Vityazevsky, Ki-ziltashsky estuaries, Salty and Than - Boer lakes). Big perspectives for development of Anapa as balneological resort create the stocks of mineral waters found in its territory and used already in a crust, time: highly mineralized carbonic hloridno-hydrocarbonate sodium (Seven-mountain), low-mineralized nitrogen-metane guide-rokarbonatno-chloride and chloride hydrocarbonate sodium with the content of iodine and boron (Rayevskoye), sulphidic (the Dzhemetinsky field), etc. The balneological profile and the Sukhumi group of resorts thanks to existence and all to the extending use of thermal waters of various chemical structure gets: low-mineralized nitric sulfate-chloride sodium calcic and highly mineralized slabosulfidny chloride sodium with the content of methane. Sochi has huge hydromineral resources; thermal hydrogen-sulfide waters of Matsesta, carbonic arsenous waters of Chvizhepse, iodine-bromine waters of Kudepsta, etc. made it the largest balneological resort of the country.
A variety natural to lay down. factors of resorts of Ch. of the item. To. creates ample opportunities for treatment of patients with various diseases, including diseases of the musculoskeletal device, a respiratory organs, cardiovascular and nervous systems, skin, a female genital. However frequent high temperatures of air, excess humidity and solar radiation in the southern part of the region limit an opportunity a dignity. - hens. treatments of patients with diseases of cardiovascular, respiratory and nervous systems.
On the basis of Ch.'s resorts of the item. To. the research establishments performing scientific and methodical management work to lay down. - the prof. work of health resorts and medical spa facilities: The Sochi scientific research institute of balneology and physical therapy of M3 of RSFSR, the Abkhazian branch of scientific research institute of balneology and Min-va physical therapy of health care of the Georgian SSR in Sukhumi.
The most important problems of optimum performance and development of resorts of Ch. of the item. To. the prevention of danger of ecological disruption and excessive recreational loads (see the Recreation) on natural resources of the coast, decrease in a tendency to an urbanization of a number of large resort towns is. In this respect implementation of the program of actions for protection of the environment of resorts, including the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus planned according to the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU, Council of ministers of the USSR and the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions «About measures for further improvement of sanatorium treatment and rest of workers and development of network of health resorts of labor unions» (1982) is important. Measures for protection and expansion of beaches, creation of parks, reproduction of the woods, control and overseeing are developed and are carried out by a condition of air and water basins (in particular, the coastal water area of the sea).
Fight against excessive recreational loads on natural complexes Ch. of the item. To. it is closely connected with a problem of seasonal overloads of a number of resort towns. For elimination of «peaks» of seasonality, increase in efficiency of treatment and rest the construction of the closed and outdoor pools with the warmed-up sea and mineral water (e.g., iodine-bromine), creation of conditions for reception of solar bathtubs in March, April and May when biol is provided in winter time. activity of solar radiation is already rather high (for these purposes the simplest designs of screened trestle beds, cabins covered with a polyethylene film, the heated aero sunbeds, etc. serve).
See also Balneoterapiya, Mud cure, the Climatotherapy. Bibliography: The resorts of the USSR, under the editorship of
S. V. Kurashov, etc., M., 1962; P and h at - l and and V. P. the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus, M., 1971. See also bibliogr. to the station Anapa, the Batumi group of resorts, the Gelendzhik group of resorts, Sochi, the Sukhumi group of resorts.
V. V. Poltoranov.