From Big Medical Encyclopedia

BITTERNESS (amara) — the pharmaceuticals containing glycosides, alkaloids, essential oils and other bitter substances. Apply to increase in appetite and to improvements of digestion.

Mechanism of action Explain with irritation of flavoring receptors; oral cavities that leads to reflex increase in excitability of the food center. Prepare from ofitsinalny vegetable raw materials: herbs of a wormwood, grass of a centaury, leaves of watch trifoliate, root of a dandelion etc.

Grass of a wormwood bitter: (Herba Absinthii) contains glycosides absinthin and anabsintin, essential oils, redoxon, tanning agents. Apply to arousing appetite in the form of infusion, tincture (1:5), dense extract or tea (1 chayn. l. the cut grass of a wormwood on 2 glasses of boiled water).

Grass of a centaury (Herba Centaurii) contains a significant amount of alkaloids (0,6 — 1%), hl. obr. gentianin, oleanolovy and ascorbic to - you and other substances. Apply to arousing appetite in the form of infusion (1: 20), broth or tincture.

Leaf of watch trifoliate (Folium Menyanthidis) contains glycosides meniantin and meliantin, alkaloid gentianin, flavonoids, tanning agents. Apply to arousing appetite and as cholagogue cure for diseases of a liver and bilious ways in the form of infusion (2 chayn. l. on a glass of boiled water).

Root of a dandelion (Radix Taraxaci) contains carotinoids and inulin. Apply to arousing appetite, at locks and as cholagogue means in the form of tea (1 chayn. l. on a glass of boiled water).

Tubers of an otavnik (Leontice Smirnowii) contains alkaloids and other substances. Apply at the akhiliya and diseases of a stomach proceeding with hyposecretion of a gastric juice in the form of dry extract in tablets (0,5 g).

As G. use also difficult officinal preparations: bitters and appetizing tea.

Bitters (Tinctura amara) represents mix of a grass of a centaury and leaves of a water shamrock (on 60 h), rhizomes of an acorus and a grass of a wormwood (on 30 h), a peel of tangerine (15 h), 40% of alcohol (in enough for production of 1 l of tincture).

Tea appetizing — mix of a grass of a wormwood (8 h) and herbs of a yarrow (2 h). One teaspoon of mix is made in 2 glasses of boiled water.

Appoint G. in 3 times a day in 15 — 30 min. prior to food: tea on 1/4 glasses, infusion on 1 table, l., tincture on 15 — 20 drops.

Are contraindicated at the strengthened secretion and a hyperoxemia of a gastric juice.

See also Medicinal plants .

Bibliography: Mashkovsky M. D. Pharmaceuticals, p.1, page 278, M., 1972.

L. A. Serebryakov.