BIRTH RATE — process of replenishment of population as a result of detorozhdeniye. The river as one of vital rates, is a subject of studying demography (see), developed methods of observation, measurement and analysis of this process in time and in each generation.
A natural basis of R. is fertility — ability of the person to reproduction of posterity (the man to fertilization, and women to conception and incubation of a fruit). Fertility (see) is implemented in R. as result of a certain behavior (reproductive behavior), a cut in society it is closely interconnected with other spheres of life activity and functioning of social institutes, first of all marriage and a family. To the middle of the 70th of 20 century the terms «birth rate» and «fertility» in the Soviet demographic literature differed indistinctly, along with them also the term «fertility», obsolete was applied. The concept P. sometimes is illegally narrowed to what is identified with one of its measuring instruments — an overal coefficient of River.
Age brackets of fertility are individual though it is conditionally accepted to consider an age interval of 15 — 49 years for women and 18 — 59 years — for men as prolific age. Fertility consider concerning set (usually sets of married women or marriage couples) as the quantitative characteristic of potential ability to a child-bearing and estimate only an indirect way or on the basis of the accounting of probability of conception for one menstrual cycle. Natural R. is R. provided that all women continuously are married all prolific period of life and any measures of prevention of births are not applied. Estimates of level of natural R. are available on separate groups of the population, for to-rykh it is possible to assume lack of widespread practice of intended restriction of R. Sleduyet to consider that natural R.'s level in different groups of the population is subject to influence of the social and cultural norms regulating the frequency of the intercourses, the periods of abstention, duration of a lactation, prevalence a gigabyte. customs etc. Average assessment of natural R., on hundred populations (the report of X. Fell), makes 10,54, i.e. all women on condition of a continuous state in marriage are capable to give rise on 10,54 living children on average on one woman. The maximum assessment of natural R. (and it is received at R.'s studying religious sect of gutterit — residents of the USA) makes 12,44; the hypothetical minimum of natural birth rate (HMNBR) removed by V. A. Borisov (1976) is equal to 7,55. These estimates serve as a standard at measurement of level of birth rate and extent of its intended restriction.
For measurement of level and R.'s structure it is offered many indicators reflecting different aspects of this process. The overal coefficient of R. (i.e. the relation of number live-born within one year to average population) which is often applied due to the lack of more detailed data depends on gender and age structure of the population and gives only an approximate idea of level P. As the frequency of detorozhdeniye at women is various at different age (reaches a maximum in the range of 20 — 24, then at first gradually, and from 40 years quickly falls), at all demographic measurements of level P. influence of age composition of women is always considered. This irregularity is even more when the frequency of births is considered for all women, and not just for the married since at young age a part of women did not marry yet, and in mature already became a widow/widower or divorced.
Therefore for more objective a honey agaric of level P. use various specialized coefficients of River. On one of them for the accounting of irregularity of level P. on age calculate povozrastny coefficients of R., carrying number live-born at women of each age to their annual average number. Usually calculate annual average coefficients of R. on five-year age intervals. Their quintupled sum is total coefficient of River. It makes the same sense gross - coefficient of generation (see. Demographic statistics ), to-ry differs from total coefficient of R. in the fact that at its calculation are considered not all been born but only girls (their share averages 0.488 from number of been born). For R.'s characteristic among the persons who are married the marriage R.'s coefficients calculated for separate intervals of age or intervals of duration of marriage serve. Their sum (productivity of marriage) represents the summary characteristic of the marriage River.
Total and povozrastny coefficients of R. can be calculated as for set of the women who were at the same time born and then the births belong to different calendar years (R. of real generation), and for given rise at the same time, but at different age, then mothers treat different year of birth (R. of conditional generation).
The system of coefficients for hypothetical generation reflects R. at a given time, at the same time the total coefficient of R. well reflects level P., and ratios of povozrastny coefficients — its internal structure. R.'s structure can be revealed more deeply by means of different systems of indicators of marriage and illegitimate R., but the correct interpretation of all these characteristics and their dynamics is possible only through the analysis of the corresponding indicators for real generations.
Information on R. from various sources is considered by demographic statistics, the most important of them are population censuses (see), the current accounting of births in special bodies, selective inspections of the population. Many methods for extraction of information on R. from other sources and its indirect assessment for the countries and the temporary periods in a long retrospective are created.
Level P. in all pre-capitalistic formations was defined by the natural R.'s level and a share of the women of different age who are married. Marriage (see) was the main social instrument of level control of River. The reproductive behavior was oriented to the maximum number of births. The possession of many children was encouraged with social and cultural tradition, it promoted the best functioning of a family in agrarian society, however was reached seldom since in the conditions of high mortality less than a half of newborns lived up to adulthood. Level P. was limited to ill health of parents and obstetric aid (see), promoting distribution infertility (see). In Western Europe level P., apparently, was lower, than in many other regions because of the so-called European type of a brachnost which widely extended since the 16th century; the high share of women at all not marrying and late age of marriage is characteristic of it.
In the second half of 19 century in countries of Western Europe intensive decrease in R. was started anew slow, and then, gradually this process extended to all European countries, the USA, Canada, Australia and Japan. Low level of R. became characteristic of all developed countries of the world (tab. 1.).
R.'s decrease happened as intended prevention by spouses of the undesirable births which are consciously limiting the families with a small number of children extended. As the reason for that served that the way of life of a family and its function in capitalist society, unlike an old country and craft family, did not allocate for children of either social, nor economic roles, and for satisfaction of psychological needs of parents of a small number of children it was sufficient.
As a result of R.'s decrease in the developed countries its level in the modern world is very various in different regions (tab. 2).
R.'s decrease in the territory of our country began at the end of the 19th century, but before Great October socialist revolution it affected only the district of the Baltics where the European type of a brachnost, and also the population of the large industrial centers and a part of exclusive classes was widespread. In the USSR R. decreased unevenly in different territories of the country. Before everything low level of R. was established in the republics of the Soviet Baltics, then in Ukraine and in RSFSR, then in Belarus, Georgia and Moldova; in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan R.'s decrease began in the 70th, and the indigenous people of Central Asia had only first signs of decrease in level P. Such irregularity connected with features of historical development and culture of the different people of our country led to considerable differentiation of birth rate in federal republics (tab. 3).
Because of irregularity of decrease in R. in different groups of the population differentiation arose not only across the territory, but also on many other signs. So, among urban population R. decreased earlier, than among rural; at the same time, the city is larger, the level P. is, as a rule, lower; the most low levels are observed in the largest cities. By special inspections it is established that birth rate in groups of the highly educated population is lower.
Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of birth rate — necessary information for planning of health care and management of it, first of all in such spheres, as obstetric, pediatric, medicogenetic consultation, hygiene of marriage. Assessment of social, economic and social and hygienic effects loudspeakers P. often shows desirability of change of its level. So, in the majority of developing countries the policy directed to R.'s decrease is pursued, and in the socialist countries of Europe and the nek-ry developed capitalist countries the policy of stimulation of River is pursued. Maintenance of necessary level of birth rate — an important part of the population policy pursued in the USSR.
Table 1. OVERAL COEFFICIENTS of BIRTH RATE IN DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES FROM 1900 for 1980 (number of births in a year for 1000 of the population) *
Table 2 LEVEL of BIRTH RATE IN DIFFERENT TERRITORIES of the WORLD during 1970 — 1980 of.
Table 3. LEVEL of BIRTH RATE IN the FEDERAL REPUBLICS of the USSR In the YEARS CLOSE TO POPULATION CENSUSES
Bibliography: Borisov V. A. Perspectives of birth rate, M., 1976; Vishnev-s to and y A. G. Demographic revolution, M., 1976; L. E. Forvaniye's Donations, M., 1972; Serenko A. F., etc. A cohort method in social and hygienic studying of birth rate in young families, M., 1971; With and f m and R. I. Dinamik's N of birth rate in the USSR, M., 1974; At r l and N and with B. Ts. Problems of dynamics of the population of the USSR, M., 19ch4; Sh l and N of dm and N Sh. I. and Zvidrinsh P. P. Studying of birth rate, M., 1973, bibliogr.
L. E. Donations.