From Big Medical Encyclopedia

BIOTELEMETRY (BT; grech, bios life + telemetry) — a remote research of functions and measurement of vital signs of a biological object. Emergence of BT is connected with development of electrical equipment and radio engineering η belongs by the time of implementation of the first remote transfer of biopotentials of heart (see. Teleelektrokardiografiya ).

In the USSR experiences of transfer fiziol, given on radio for the first time are carried out by L. L. Chernavkin and A. M. Yushchenko in 1932. In 40 — the 50th years in connection with progress of radio engineering biotelemetric methods of medical control and fiziol, researches began to be used widely in aviation, space and other fields of medicine. The great influence on development of BT regarding improvement of methods of receiving biol, information, improvement of sensors, electronic metering devices, methods of coding, transfer, record and automatic processing of results of measurement was rendered by astronautics.

BT allows to obtain quantitative information directly from a body of interest and to register dynamics of change of physiological processes continuously for a long time in the real surrounding situation characteristic of its production or other activity as is normal, and in pathology. It defines a possibility of use of BT for studying of reactions of the major physiological systems of a healthy organism to various external influences at the minimum disturbance of comfort and mobility, and also for diagnosis and dynamic control of a condition of patients.

Information transfer on long distances allows to carry out complex diagnosis of a condition of an organism on many physiological and diagnostic indicators using the COMPUTER that in turn gives the chance to predict changes of conditions of an organism and to hold preventive events for prevention of diseases. BT gives the chance to the doctor to manage the nature of labor process or loading in process of a sports training. At diagnosis of diseases of internals of the person, napr, at a research went. - kish. a path «radiopill», BT saves the doctor from use of surgical interventions and difficult contact sounding.

In clinical medicine and a physiological experiment of BT apply to transfer of diagnostic data, napr, electrocardiosignal on radio or phone from the periphery in the advisory diagnostic center, and also to a research of a condition of «mobile» patients with cardiovascular diseases in the conditions of a hospital or sanatorium during recovery and recovery treatment.

BT is used for measurement of parameters fiziol, systems of an organism with after-treatment on the COMPUTER during the formation of the teams managing means of active intervention — the automated cardiopulmonary bypasses, breath, narcotic devices, etc.

BT finds application in the field of information transfer about functioning of systems and bodies in the equipment of remote stimulation or oppression, napr, in case of stimulation of cordial reductions or stimulation of departments of a brain of animals in the course of biocontrol, etc.

In air, space and underwater medicine of BT it is applied to studying of adaptation opportunities of the person to various factors of space flight or stay in an aqueous medium under high pressure, and also at operating medical control behind a condition of the pilot, submariner or astronaut during flight or scuba diving.

There are possibilities of use of BT in devices of the automatic analysis fiziol, indicators for obtaining the objective information about a condition of the person for the purpose of management of life support systems.

In physiology of work and sport of BT it is applied to studying of quantitative features of functional shifts and transient phenomenons in fiziol, systems of a human body in the course of production activity and sports activities for the purpose of rationing of loadings, identification of degree of its fitness or readiness, and also detection of early, preclinical pathology.

the Simplified flowchart of biotelemetric system: 1 — sensors of biological information; 2 — electronic reformative devices; z — the telemetric transmitter; 4 — the telemetric receiver; 5 — devices of data recording; 6 — metering devices of automatic processing; 7 — devices of automatic processing.

The simplified flowchart of biotelemetric system is represented in the drawing. The biotelemetric system consists of two parts. The first, transferring part is established on an object of researches or in close proximity to it. The transferring part can be entered also in an object, napr, in case of use of an endoradiosonde — «radiopill». Are a part of the transferring part the sensors transforming biol, information and transferring it in the corresponding units, napr, the size of arterial and venous pressure — mm of mercury., cardiac sounds — in acoustic units, mechanical movements — in centimeters, electrocardiographic, elektroentsefalografichesky, miografichesky electric signals — in microvolts, millivolts. From an exit of sensors the electric signal in the form of amplitude of current or tension proportional above-stated biol, size, arrives on an entrance of the reformative electronic structure of channels with the telemetric transmitter of the communication line.

The telemetric receiver of the communication line, the device of data recording but to channels, metering devices and devices of automatic processing of results of measurement, including the COMPUTER are alternating cast of a reception and measuring (stationary) part. Depending on purpose of biotelemetric system and the performance specification imposed to it separate links of system can be entered or excluded. In the BT elementary systems in the presence of the cable communication line with the registering and measuring equipment the telemetric transmitter and the receiver can be absent. In more complex systems of BT information from sensors and converters can pass consistently through several transmitters and receivers (relaying of information).

The transferring part of biotelemetric system can also include devices of roughing-out of information for the purpose of reduction of its redundancy and the device for data storage depending on external environment and technical features of system.

Information transfer from an object of researches to metering devices is carried out on various highly - or to low-frequency communication lines. Low-frequency lines were widely adopted: wire cable communication, phone, and also high-frequency radio lines using very high frequency. For information transfer in an aqueous medium hydroacoustic, electromagnetic or optical communication lines find application.

About several measured sizes on single-wire or radio communication lines in biotelemetric systems apply frequency or temporary division of channels to a possibility of information transfer.

The main medico-performance specification to the transferring part of BT are: reliable transformation of the measured size to the transmitted signal and reliable allocation of a signal of the measured parameter from a set of other signals of noise (signal/noise> 1/50), an error of telemetry of 1 — 10%, providing the minimum dimensions, weight and energy consumption. A stationary reception part of the BT system has less rigid restrictions on weight, dimensions and energy consumption. See also Telemetry .

Bibliography: Biological telemetry, under the editorship of V. V. Parin, M., 1971, bibliogr.; The reference book on telemetry, under the editorship of E. L. Gryunberg, the lane with English, M., 1971, bibliogr.; Biomedical telemetry, ed. by G. A. Gaceres, N. Y. — L., 1 965.

V. M. Akhutin, A. G. Pakhomov.