BIOLOGY (grech, bios life of logos the word, the doctrine) — set of sciences about wildlife. A subject of studying of B. — all manifestations of life: a structure and functions of living beings and their natural communities, their distribution, an origin and development, bonds with each other and with inanimate nature. B.'s problems consist in studying of all biol, patterns, disclosure of essence of life and its manifestations for the purpose of knowledge and management of them. The term «biology» is offered in 1802 independently from each other by two scientists — fr. Ge. B. Lamarck and is mute. G. R. Treviranus.
The main methody B.: the observation allowing to describe biol, the phenomenon; the comparison giving the chance to find patterns, the general for the different phenomena (e.g., individuals of one look, different types or for all living beings); the experiment, or experience, in the course to-rogo the researcher artificially creates the situation helping to reveal more deeply the lying properties biol, objects; the historical method allowing to learn developments of wildlife on the basis of data on the modern organic world and its past. In modern B. between these main methods it is impossible to conduct researches strict border; once justified division of B. into descriptive and experimental sections lost the value now.
The biology is closely connected with many sciences and with practical activities of the person. For the description and a research biol, B.'s processes attracts chemistry, physics, mathematics, many technical science and sciences about Earth — geology, geography, geochemistry. So arise biol, the disciplines adjacent to other sciences — the biochemistry, biophysics and so forth
Due to B.'s exit to the advanced boundaries of natural sciences, growth of value and a relative role of B. among other sciences, in particular as the productive force of society, often designate the second half of 20 century «a century of biology». Value B. for formation of consistently materialistic outlook, for the proof of a natural-historical origin of all living beings and the person with the highest forms of reasonable activity inherent in it, for eradication of belief in supernatural and initial expediency (theology and teleology) is huge. An important role is played by biology in knowledge of the person and his place of the nature. According to K. Marx, B. and the theory of evolution developed in its subsoil give a natural-historical basis to materialistic views of development of society. The victory of the evolutionary idea in 19 century promoted successful fight in science against belief in divine creation of living beings and the person (see Creationism). B. proves that the phenomena submitting to laws of physics and chemistry are the cornerstone of vital processes. It does not exclude existence in wildlife special biol, patterns which, however, have nothing in common with idea of existence of the incognizable «vital force» — vis vitalis (see Vitalism). Thus, thanks to B.'s progress the main support of religious outlook and philosophical idealism fall. A methodological basis of modern B. is the dialectic materialism. Even the researchers far from the statement of materialism in philosophical concepts, confirm with the works on B. basic cognoscibility of wildlife, open objectively existing patterns and check correctness of knowledge by experience, practice, i.e. spontaneously stand on materialistic positions.
The patterns opened by B. — an important component of modern natural sciences. They form a basis of medicine, page - x. sciences, forestry, fur farming, hunting and fishery. Use by the person of richness of the organic world is based on the principles opened B. These B. relating to fossil organisms matter for geology. Many biol, the principles apply in the equipment. Use of atomic energy, and also space researches demanded creation and the strengthened development of radiobiology and bioastronautics. Only on a basis biol, researches the solution of one of the most grandiose and essential tasks which rose before mankind — systematic reconstruction of the biosphere of Earth for the purpose of creation of optimal conditions for life of the increasing population of the planet is possible.
The system of biological sciences
System biol, sciences is extremely multidimensional that is caused both by variety of manifestations of life, and a variety of forms, methods and research objectives of live objects, studying live at the different levels of its organization. All this defines convention of any system biol. sciences. Sciences about animals developed one of the first in B. — zoology (see) and plants — botany (see), and also anatomy and human physiology (see. Anatomy , Physiology ). Other large sections B. selected on objects of a research — microbiology (see) — science about microorganisms, hydrobiology (see) — science about the organisms inhabiting an aqueous medium, etc. Inside B. were created narrower disciplines; within zoology — studying mammals — a teriologiya (see), birds — ornithology, reptiles and amphibiouses — a herpetology, fishes and ryboobrazny — ichthyology, insects — entomology (see), mites — acarology (see), mollusks — a malakologiya, protozoa — protozoology (see); in botany — the studying seaweed — algology (see), fungi — mycology (see), lichens — a lichenology, mosses — a bryology, trees and bushes — dendrology etc. The division of disciplines sometimes goes even more deeply. The variety of organisms and distribution them on groups are studied by a systematics of animals and a taxonomist of plants (see. Systematics ). B. it is possible to subdivide into not ontology studying the modern organic world and paleontology (see) — science about the died-out animals (paleozoology) and plants (paleobotanist).
Other aspect of classification biol, disciplines — on the studied properties and manifestations live. The form and a structure of organisms are studied by morphological disciplines; a way of life of animals and plants and their relationship with environmental conditions — ecology (see); studying of different functions of living beings — area of researches physiology (see); patterns of heredity and variability — a subject of researches of genetics (see); patterns of behavior of animals — ethology (see); studies patterns of an ontogeny embryology (see) or in broader modern understanding — developmental biology; patterns of historical development — theory of evolution (see). Each of the called disciplines is divided into a number of more private (e.g., morphology — on functional, comparative, etc.). At the same time there is an interpenetration and merge of the different industries of B. to formation of complex combinations, e.g., gisto-, cyto - or an embriofiziologiya, cytogenetics, evolutionary and ecological genetics, etc. The anatomy (see) studies a structure of bodies and their systems macroscopically; studies a microstructure of fabrics histology (see), cells — cytology (see), and a structure of a cellular kernel — a karyology (see). At the same time both the histology, and cytology, and a karyology investigate not only a structure of the relevant structures, but also their functions and biochemical, properties.
It is possible to mark out the disciplines connected with use of certain methods of a research, e.g. in B. biochemistry (see), biophysics (see), etc. Biochemical, and biophysical. the directions of researches often closely intertwine as among themselves (e.g., in radiation biochemistry), and with other biol, disciplines, naira, in radiobiologies (see). Is important biometrics (see), a cut are the cornerstone mathematical processing biol, the dependences given for the purpose of opening escaping at the description of the single phenomena and processes, etc.
Due to the studying live at the different levels of its organization allocate planning of an experiment molecular biology (see), investigating vital manifestations at subcellular, molecular level; the cytology and histology studying cells and fabrics of live organisms; the populyatsionnovidovy B. (a systematics, biogeography, the population directions in genetics and ecology) connected with studying of populations as components of any kind of organisms (see. Population biology); the biogeocenology studying the highest structural levels of the organization of life on Earth up to the biosphere in general. The important place in B. is taken both the theoretical, and practical directions of researches, sharp line between to-rymi difficult to draw since any theoretical direction is inevitably connected (directly or indirectly, at present or in the future) with exits in practice. Theoretical researches provide successful development of applied disciplines, napr, to industrial microbiology and technical biochemistry, protection of plants, crop production and livestock production, nature protection, disciplines of a medicobiological complex: parasitology (see), immunology (see) etc. In turn applied B.'s industries enrich the theory with the new facts and set for it the tasks determined by requirements of society. From almost important disciplines quickly develop bionics (see), bioastronautics (see), astrobiology or an exobiology (a research of life out of Earth). As product and object biol, evolutions a row biol, disciplines is engaged in studying of the person — anthropology (see), genetics and human ecology, medical genetics (see), psychology (see), closely connected with social sciences.
Especially it is necessary to allocate several fundamental areas B. investigating the most general, inherent in all living beings of pattern and components modern general B. Eto's basis science about the main structurally functional unit of an organism — a cell, i.e. cytology; science about the phenomena of reproduction and succession of the morpho-physiological organization of live forms — genetics (see); science about ontogenesis (see) — developmental biology; science about laws of historical development of the organic world — theory of evolution, and also the biochemistry, biophysics and physiology studying functional manifestations, a metabolism and energy in live organisms.
The short historical sketch
Modern biology originates in the countries of the Mediterranean (Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece). The first systematic attempts to comprehend the phenomena of life were made Ancient Greek, and further by ancient Roman naturalistic philosophy representatives and doctors (since 6 century BC). Especially big contribution to development of biology was made by Hippocrates, Aristotle and Galen. In the Middle Ages accumulation biol, knowledge was dictated generally by interests of medicine. Plants were studied preferential in connection with their medicinal properties. Openings of a human body were prohibited, and the anatomy taught according to Galen was actually anatomy of animals, hl. obr. pigs and monkeys * In Renaissance gained distribution of the composition of antique naturalists, and also the Encyclopaedists of the Middle Ages writing about the nature. The geographical discoveries connected with travel to the countries of the Mediterranean and then both to coast of Africa and around it (1497), discovery of North America (1492), etc. enriched knowledge of flora and animals. It was promoted also by creation of botanic gardens at university and menageries.
The first botanical works were comments to compositions of antique scientists Teofrast, Dioskorid and Pliny the Elder. Further there are original «herbalists» — lists of medicinal plants with their short description and the image. Only the ital. botanist A. Chezalyshno in 1583 made attempt of creation of classification on the basis of a structure of seeds, flowers and fruits. Chezalpino has rudiments of the doctrine about a metamorphosis, and also concepts of a sort and a look.
Dazzling successes of anatomy in Renaissance were connected with implementation of anatomization of a human body in practice both teaching, and a research. The facts of discrepancy of real observations book, based on Galen's authority, decided to publish to fla. the scientist A. Vezaly in the work «About a Structure of a Human Body» (1543). The denial of the statement of Galen about existence of a time in the wall of heart dividing its ventricles showed insolvency of the theory of the movement of blood on Galen and led to a conclusion about existence of a small circle of blood circulation. This conclusion was drawn isp. the scientist M. Servet (1553), and after it ital. — R. Columbus (1559).
Works of anatomists prepared great opening of 17 century — U. Garvey's doctrine about blood circulation (1628) — a sample fiziol, researches on the basis of quantitative measurements and use of laws of hydraulics according to the arising mechanical direction in medicine. The most visible representatives yatromekhanik (see) there were ital. scientists of S. Santorio, trying to check on itself the quantitative party of a metabolism in a body of the person (1614), and J. Borelli aiming to explain with laws of mechanics all forms of motion of animals (1680), including muscular contraction and digestion. These explanations encountered insuperable difficulties and were in opposition to the yatrokhimichesky direction (see. Yatrokhimiya ), explaining all vital processes on the basis of the doctrine about fermentations (fermentations) developed in 16 century it is mute. doctor and chemist F. Paracelsus. The doctrine about fermentations explained and long since the allowed self-generation, and also origin and development which are made allegedly by mixing of semen at fertilization. Even Garvey who proclaimed the philosophy of reproduction of animals situation «in total from egg» (1651) allowed self-generation for the lowest animals in whom eggs were not found. Experiments of the ital. scientist F. Redi (1668) who showed that «self-generation» of larvae of flies in the decaying meat is explained by development of the last of the eggs laid by flies at that time did not resolve finally an issue yet.
With creation of a microscope (17 century) possibilities of studying of living beings extended and went deep. The group of brilliant microscopists opens cellular and fibrous structure of plants (the English scientist R. Guk, 1665; ital. — M. Malpigi, 1675 — 1679; English — to N. Gr, 1671 — 1682), the world of microscopic beings, erythrocytes and spermatozoa (a goal. — A. Levenguk, 1673 and later), studies a structure and development of insects (Malpigi, 1669; goal. — Ya. Svammerdam, 1669 and later), the movement of blood in capillaries (Malpigi, 1661), finds eggs in fishes and the follicles in ovaries of mammals taken for eggs (dates. — N. Steno, 1667; goal. — R. de Graaf, 1672), establishes sexual distinctions at plants (English — T. Millington, 1676; it is mute. — R. Kamerarius, 1694). These opening led to emergence of two wrong directions in embryology — ovist and animalkulist (spermatist) denying participation of one of floors in fertilization. Both points of view agreed that true development actually does not happen, but, on one, in egg, on another — in a spermatozoon the ready tiny germ of future organism is concluded (see. Preformizm ).
Ray defined the concept «look» and, having used works of the English scientist F. Uillobi, gave the classification of vertebrata based on anatomo-fiziol. signs (1693).
The «System of the nature» comprehensive for those times (1735) based on recognition of an invariance of initially created world was offered by the Swede, the naturalist K. Linney. He constructed the system of plants called by it «sexual», proceeding from number of stamens and other signs of flowers. Its classification of animals was more natural and was based taking into account their internal features. Linney allocated a class of mammals in which it correctly included whales, and also the person carried by it together with monkeys to group of primacies. A huge merit of Linney — introduction to practice of the binominalism with the double name (by the nature of and to a look) each form of plants and animals. The artificial system of Linney did not satisfy many botanists trying to find «natural» system of plants according to their similarity and «affinity». The fr. botanist A. L. completed these attempts. Zhyussye in the work «The Childbirth of Plants Located on Natural Orders» (1789). The hostile stand in relation to any systems, including and Linney, was occupied by the fr. naturalist Zh. Byuffon. Its «Natural history», a cut he managed to publish 36 volumes (1749 — 1788), includes the description not only animals and the person, but also minerals and history of the past of Earth. Byuffon looked for unities in the plan of a structure of animals, built guesses about the past of fauna and tried to explain similarity of a relatives with their origin from each other. Byuffon's ideas concerning reproduction and development of organisms were of great importance for a denial of the doctrine about preformation. They marked return to the doctrine about two semen participating in fertilization (1749). Byuffon tried to revive also the antique concept of a pangenesis, claiming that in semen the «organic molecules» representing everything gather speak rapidly bodies. Development of an individual the fr. scientist P. Mopertyui (1744) and Byuffon was explained with forces of an attraction and pushing away between organic molecules. Revival of the doctrine about epigenesis (see) was promoted by the Russian academician K. F. Wolf (1759 — 1768) most. He explained development with action of the certain «essential force» providing the movement of nutritious juice in germs. Wolf attributed to this force physical. properties of an attraction and pushing away by analogy with the gravity (1789). Thus, it was not the vitalistic concept, but a peculiar reaction to «mechanical» medicine. Laid the foundation for it it. the doctor and the chemist Mr. Shtal who opposed the theory of animism (1708) concepts of the person car, managed by fluids. Attributing to «soul» management of all life activity of an organism, it proceeded from the facts of dependence fiziol, reactions from psychological influences. Its doctrine about «vitality» originating from the principle of «irritability» (the English scientist F. Gleason, 1672), gained further development in the doctrine it. the physiologist A. Galler about irritability (1753). Having experimentally shown distinction between contractility of muscle fibers and ability of nerves and a brain to carry out irritations, Galler attributed them to action of two «forces» inherent in fibers and body tissues. After Galler chesh. the anatomist and the physiologist Y. Prokhask allows existence of the uniform «nervous force» providing without participation of a brain both perception of excitement, and transfer (1784) to its motive bodies. The same interpretation got also sensational experiences of the ital. scientist L. Galvani who found out «animal electricity» (1791) that led further to development electrophysiologies (see).
In the field of physiology of breath made the English scientist J. Priestley who showed (1771 — 1778) in experiences on plants that they emit the gas promoting burning and necessary for breath of animals and also fr. — A. Lavoisier, P. Laplace and A. Segen who found out properties of oxygen in oxidizing processes and a role it in breath and formation of animal heat (1787 — 1790) much. A role of a sunlight in ability of green leaves to emit oxygen, using carbon dioxide gas from air, established a goal. doctor Ya. Ingenkhauz (1779), shveyts. scientists Zh. Senebye (1782) and N. Saussure (1804). At the end of 18 century begin to study widely the substances emitted from animals and plants, laying thereby the foundation of future organic chemistry (discovery of urea, cholesterol, organic acids, etc.).
It is mute. the scientist Y. Kelreyter finally proved existence of a floor at plants, and. the works on hybridization showed participation in fertilization and development both ova, and pollen of plants (1761 and later). At the end of 18 century the ital. scientist L. Spallantsani made the exact experiments disproving a possibility of self-generation.
The ideas of historical development of the organic world arise in the 2nd half of 18 century more and more persistently. It is still mute. the philosopher G. W. Leibniz proclaimed the principle of gradation of living beings and predicted existence of transitional forms between plants and animals. Opening shveyts. was considered by the naturalist A. Tramble of fresh-water polyps (1744) as finding of such «zoophytes». The principle of gradation gained further development in the idea «ladders of beings» from minerals to the person, edge for one (shveyts. the naturalist Che. Bonnet, 1745, 1764) was an illustration of an ideal continuity in a structure of beings, and for others (the fr. philosopher Zh. B. Robin, 1768; the Russian writer A. N. Radishchev, 1792 — 1796) — the evidence of really happened transformation of living beings. Byuffon (1749, 1778) constructed a courageous hypothesis of history of Earth, a cut it estimated duration in 80 — 90 thousand years and divided into 7 periods; only during the last periods animals and, at last, the person appear on Earth of a plant, then. Byuffon allowed transformation of one forms into others under the influence of climate, the soil and food. P. Mopertyui (1750) stated guesses about a role of elimination of the forms which are not adapted for existence.
Evolutionarily the fr. scientist Ge. B. Lamarck interpreted «a ladder of beings», having drawn in «Philosophy of zoology» (t. 1—2, 1809) as he believed the way of improvement of living beings from the lowest to the highest which is made, on the basis of aspiration internal, inherent in organisms to progress (the principle of gradation). The environment causes deviations from the «correct» gradation and defines adaptation of types to living conditions or direct influence (plants and the lowest animals), or through exercise and not exercise of bodies in connection with change of habits (animals with a nervous system). At undoubted progressiveness for the time (overcoming creationism, justification of evolution of living beings under the influence of the natural reasons) in understanding of mechanisms of evolution Lamarck's theory was the physiophilosophical concept with explicit elements of idealism (internal aspiration to progress, a role of efforts of animals in changes, always reasonable and hereditary change of signs under direct influence of conditions, etc.).
Lamarck's theory (see. Lamarckism ) criticized many, including the founder of a comparative anatomy and paleontology of animals fr. scientist Zh. Kyuvye. For an explanation of historical change of live forms and disappearance of many of them it put forward the doctrine about the accidents undergone by the organic world under the influence of geological cataclysms (1825). The fr. scientist E. Geoffroi St Hilaire tried to prove the physiophilosophical doctrine about «unity of the plan of a structure» of animals, a cut he explained further with a community of their origin. On its representations, evolutionary changes result from suddenly direct influences of the environment; especially jumps are undergone by animals during the embryonal period. These ideas found reflection and in views of the Russian scientist K. F. Rulye who considerably deepened them and who anticipated their original evolutionary interpretation.
The idea of development of organisms found originally scientific confirmation in embryological researches of Russian academicians of X. I. Pandera (1817) and K. M. Rem (1827) about germinal leaves, in justification in Rem of the principles of comparative embryology (1828 — 1837) and in creation it is mute. the biologist T. Shvain (1839) uniform for all organic world cellular theory (see). The doctrine about unity of a cellular texture of all living beings played a huge role in development of histology, embryology and cellular physiology. R. Virkhov created «cellular pathology» and proclaimed the principle «any cell from a cell» (1858), and is mute. scientists M. Schultz and E. Bryukke put forward (1861) concepts about a cell as «an elementary organism», the main parts to-rogo are protoplasm and a kernel.
Great success was achieved in the middle of 19 century in the area fiziol, chemistry, hl. obr. thanks to works it is mute. the scientist Yu. Libikh and fr. — Zh. B. Bussengo which established feeding habits of plants and his difference from food of animals, having formulated the principle of cycle of matter in the nature. Libikh divided all substances which are a part of living beings into proteins, fats and carbohydrates, found out many chemical processes of a metabolism, including formation of fats of carbohydrates. It is mute. scientist F. Voeller for the first time synthesized organic matters — oxalic to - that (1824) and urea (1828); however and it, and Libikh allowed existence of a certain «vital force» as the reasons of the vital phenomena. Need of this assumption was agreed also by such large physiologists of that time as it is mute. — I. Müller and some other. Completely only fr. physiologists K. Bernard, E. Du Bois-Reymond refused it and it is mute. — K. Ludvig, G. Helmholtz.
Bernard found out a role of secrets of various glands in digestion (1843, 1847), proved synthesis of a glycogen in a liver (1848), proved the concept «internal environments» of an organism and formulated philosophy of experimental physiology and medicine. Ludvig, Du Bois-Reymond and Helmholtz developed the main fiziol, methods of a research of neuromuscular system and sense bodys. In Russia their worthy successor was I. M. Sechenov who established braking of spinal reflexes by the centers of a brain («Reflexes of a brain», 1863) and laid the foundation of materialistic understanding higher nervous activity (see).
The works of the fr. scientist L. Pasteur (disclosure of a role of microorganisms in processes of fermentation, 1857 — 1864) which had outstanding value for the food industry, agriculture, etc. allowed to disprove finally the doctrine about self-generation of organisms (1860 — 1864). Further he showed a role of microorganisms in infectious diseases of animals and the person, developed measures of fight against rage and a malignant anthrax by means of protective inoculations.
The nature of processes of fermentation causing a controversy between supporters physical. - chemical (Libikh) and mikrobiol. (Pasteur) of her explanation, finally opened it. the scientist E. Bukhner, having emitted from barmy mushrooms enzyme zymase (1897). It laid the foundation for new science — enzymology (see. Enzymes ). The Russian doctor N. I. Lunin proved (1880) existence in foodstuff vitamins (see), after called so the Polish scientific K. Funk (1912). At the end of 19 century the first success in studying of chemistry of proteins and nucleic acids (German biochemists F. Misher, E. Fischer, E. Abdergalden, etc. was achieved). Basic value for establishment of a nitrogen cycle, sulfur and iron in the nature had detection by the Russian microbiologist S. N. Vinogradsky (1887 — 1891) bacteria capable to form by the chemosynthesis (opened by Vinogradsky) organic matters of inorganic. Founder virology (see) D. I. Ivanovsky opened a new form of the organization of live (1892) — viruses (see).
The theory of evolution of Ch. Darvin stated to them in the work «About the Origin of Species by Natural Selection» (1859) was the largest gain of 19 century. It gave the proof of evolutionary development of the organic world leaning on huge number of the facts from biogeography, paleontology, a comparative anatomy and embryology. Having offered the theory natural selection (see), it opened also the mechanism of organic evolution, gave the causal analysis of driving factors of evolution. Huge philosophical value Darwinism (see) consisted also in materialistic solution of the problem of organic expediency. The Darwinism not only finally expelled creationism and teleology from B., but also implemented historical approach to all phenomena of life in thinking of biologists. It promoted development of a number of recent trends in B.: evolutionary comparative anatomy (German scientist K. Gegenbaur), evolutionary embryology (Russian biologists A. O. Kowalewski, I. I. Mechnikov), evolutionary paleontology (V. O. Kowalewski). On the same basis it is mute. by scientists F. Müller (1864) and E. Gekkel (1866) it was formulated biogenetic law (see). With development of theory of evolution huge scope was received zoo - and plant geography. A big role in promotion of Darwinism played in England T. Gekeli, in Germany E. Gekkel. In Russia the largest contribution to promotion and development of theory of evolution brought K. A. Timiryazev and the whole group of comparative anatomists, embryologists, paleontologists (M. A. Menzbir, V. M. Shimkevich, A. N. Severtsov, P. P. Sushkin, M. V. Pavlova, A. A. Borisyak, etc.).
The doctrine about natural selection quickly gained the most wide recognition. However obscurity of patterns of variability and heredity was a source of discrepancies in interpretation of factors of evolution. At the end of 19 century there were various directions of neodarvinism and a neolamarckism, and also frankly antievolyutsionistsky tendencies.
Attempts to open mechanisms of heredity it is speculative were not crowned with success. Only G. Mendel managed to determine the main consistent patterns of heredity (1865). However its work remained unnoticed, and only achievements of cytology and embryology prepared its reopening (1900) and the correct assessment in 20 century. Disclosure of thin processes of distribution of chromosomes at cellular division was the first step in this direction — mitosis (see) (fr. biologist A. Schneider, 1873; Russian — I. D. Chistyakov, 1874; polsk. — E. Strasburger, 1875; it is mute. — V. Flemming, 1882, etc.). Further processes of fertilization, maturing, gametes and the phenomenon of a reduction of chromosomes were found out (see. Meiosis ) at first at animals (German the biologist O. Gertvig, 1875; belg. — E. van Beneden, 1875 — 1884; it is mute. — T. Boveri, 1887 — 1888), and then and at plants (Russian — I. N. Gorozhankin, 1880 — 1883; Russian — S. G. Navashin, 1898; fr. — L. Ginyar, 1899).
In the eighties 19 century big development were received by the experimental embryology called originally «development mechanics» (German the embryologist to V. R, 1883 and later). Clarification of a role of external and internal factors in development, and also relationship of parts of a germ led soon to big theoretical disputes and partially to revival of vitalism (German the biologist of X. Driesch, etc.).
The 20th century is characterized by development new biol, disciplines and raising of researches in the «classical» industries of B., including on the basis of further specialization or integration of old sections. Especially intensively the cytology, zoophysiology and plants, biochemistry, embryology, theory of evolution, ecology, theory of the biosphere, and also microbiology, virology, parasitology and other industries B develop in 20 century of the geneticist.
A starting point for development of genetics became mendelism (see), the goal supported with a number of generalizations, including the mutational theory. scientist of X. de Fris (1901 — 1903) who played despite an inaccuracy of many provisions, an important role in preparation of synthesis of genetics and the theory of evolution. The concepts «gene», «genotype», «phenotype» were developed (dates. the scientist V. Iogansen, 1909), the chromosomal theory of heredity is proved (an amer. scientific T. X. Morgan, A. Stertevant, G. J. Meller, K. Bridges, etc.). Important methodological value was gained by a question of origins of hereditary changes (see. Mutation ). Proofs of influence on mutational process physical., and then and chemical factors (Russian scientists G. A. Nadson and G. S. Filippov, 1925; V. V. Sakharov, 1932, etc. also American scientists G. J. Meller, 1927; L. Stedler, 1928, etc.) finally disproved autogenetic concepts of the geneticists emphasizing the spontaneous nature of emergence of mutations and firmly proved materialistic treatment mutagenesis (see).
Biochemical, the nature of genes and the matrix principle of their reproduction at first were postulated purely theoretically in the form of idea of «hereditary molecules» (N. K. Koltsov, 1927 and later).
Further by means of the phenomena transductions (see) and transformations (see) at microorganisms it was succeeded to prove that carriers of genetic information are threads deoxyribonucleic to - you are (DNA), concluded in chromosomes (1944). These opening laid the foundation to molecular genetics (see). Clarification of molecular composition of DNA (amer. the scientist J. Watson and English — F. Shout, 1953) and development of methods of their allocation from viruses and bacteria allowed to achieve synthesis of in vitro DNA on the basis of DNA of a phage. It turned out that the synthesized DNA has same «infectivity», as well as initial DNA of a phage (an amer. scientist A. Kornberg, 1967).
On the basis of implementation in B. of methods of physics, chemistry, mathematics, etc., and also achievements in area of knowledge of structure of proteins, patterns of their synthesis, transfer of hereditary factors the round of researches at molecular level extends. The sequence of an arrangement of amino acids from above than in 200 proteins is deciphered, their secondary structure and a way of laying of polypeptide threads in a molecule of protein are found out. On giant chromosomes from cells of a sialaden of a drosophila the nukleoproteidny structure of chromosomes was proved. It was succeeded to clear a virus of a tobacco mosaic, having shown nukleoproteidny structure of viruses and phages.
The sciences studying an ontogeny of organisms also achieved considerable progress: methods of an experimental parthenogenesis and an androgenesis are developed (see. Parthenogenesis ), determination of development of parts and bodies of a germ [the doctrine about «gradients» is studied (an amer. the scientist Ch. Chayld, 1915 and later), about «organizers» (German — X. Shpeman, 1921 and later)], the foundation of the comparative and embryological direction in B. of development is laid (Russian — D. P. Filatov). Important achievements are available in regulation of processes of recovery of fabrics and bodies (see. Regeneration ) and their change (see. Transplantation ), what is of great importance for a plastic surgery. Are more deeply studied immunology blood groups (see), properties and structure antibodies (see), developed by an organism in response to invasion antigens (see).
Considerable success is achieved in physiology and biochemistry of animals: the doctrine about conditioned reflexes (see), developed by I. P. Pavlov; rapid development of neurophysiology: studying of physiology and biochemistry of muscular contraction; allocation and a comprehensive investigation of the enzymes defining the direction and speed of various processes of biosynthesis, and implementation with their help of synthesis of hormones (insulin, etc.), vitamins, enzymes (ribonuclease, etc.) and other biologically active agents. The phytophysiology achieved progress in knowledge of chemistry photosynthesis (see), in studying of the pigments participating in it and first of all a chlorophyll which managed to be synthesized artificially. There is progress in studying of growth and development of plants, napr, some growth hormones (auxins, gibberllina) are allocated and partially synthesized.
Many researches, including and the Soviet biologists, had not only theoretical, but also important applied value, napr, for medicine or agriculture. Doctrines about transmissible diseases and a natural ochagovost of E are that. N. Pavlovsky, capital works on V. A. Dogel, V. N. Beklemishev and K. I. Scriabin's parasitology, the law of homologous series in hereditary variability and the doctrine about the centers of an origin of cultivated plants of N. I. Vavilov, etc.
Essential development was gained by theory of evolution. So, in 20 — the 30th years synthesis of Darwinism and genetics was carried out. Opening of a role in evolution of populations both mutational process, and dynamics of number and isolation, at directive action of selection, allowed to develop the modern evolutionary ideas supporting, deepening and developing Darwinism. The Russian scientist S. S. Chetverikov (1915, 1926), amer gave the theoretical analysis of these processes. — S. Wright (1921 — 1932), English — J. B. S. Haldane (1924 — 1932) and R. Fischer (1928 — 1930). Studying of natural populations validated this analysis and disclosed essence of microevolution — the processes proceeding at the level before speciation. Allocation of micro and macroevolutionary levels promoted development of the theory of factors of evolution (owls. the biologist I. I. Shmalgauzen, etc.)» to justification of the main types of evolution and exarticulation from them as the main — aromorfoz and ideoadaptation (A. N. Severtsov), to development of ideas of rates and forms of evolution.
Great success is achieved in studying of patterns of a way of life of organisms and their communication with the habitat, i.e. in ecology both individuals and populations, and complex communities (biocenoses and ecosystems). Patterns of communication of conditions of the environment with distribution of organisms in space and time are revealed; features of a complex structure of populations and biocenoses; the factors defining dynamics of number of populations, and other fundamental dependences. Concepts of trophic levels, mains circuits, life-forms, ecological niches, biol, productivity and the related concepts and representations are created. The largest achievement of B. is creation of owls. scientists V. I. Vernadsky biogeochemistry (see) both theories of the biosphere (1926) and V. N. Sukachyov — a biogeocenology which make a scientific basis of relationship of mankind with the environment of the dwelling — the biosphere of Earth.
Development of the majority of the mentioned and other important directions of modern B. was prepared in the USSR by scientific activity of many outstanding biologists. In addition to called, it is necessary to mark out biochemists A. N. Bach, V. S. Gulevich, A. R. Kizel, V. I. Palladin, Ya. O. Parnas, D. N. Pryanishnikov; V. M. Bekhterev's physiologists, H. E. Vvedensky, L. A. Orbeli, A. F. Samoylov, A. A. Ukhtomsky, microbiologists B. L. Isachenko, V. L. Omelyansky, V. O. Tauson; botanists V. L. Komarov, S. P. Kostychev, N. A. Maximov; L. S. Berg's zoologists, Η. M. Knipovich, V. M. Shimkevich; histologists, embryologists and geneticists S. N. Davidenkov, M. M. Zavadovsky, A. A. Zavarzin, S.G. Levitte, A.S. Serebrovsky, Yu. A. Filipchenko, N. G. Hlopin, etc., left large schools of sciences.
However development of biology in the USSR is noted not only the periods of progress and opening. In 1936 and 1939 a number of heated debates on methodological problems theoretical B took place. During these discussions some provisions of genetics and Darwinism and the principles of selection based on them underwent sharp, subjectivistic criticism. Group of scientists (T. D. Lysenko, etc.) upheld wrong, mechanistic views on the nature of heredity, speciation, natural selection, organic expediency, etc. These views were declared as development of scientific heritage outstanding owls. the selector I. V. Michurin are also called «Michurinsk biology» and «creative Darwinism». After the session of VASHNIL (1948) the situation especially became aggravated, researches of a number of the directions of the general B. completely stopped. All this created the soil for distribution of the unchecked facts and hypotheses (the doctrine about noncellular «living material», spasmodic «generation» of types, «transformation» of viruses into bacteria, etc.).
The negative role was played also by discussions on physiology (The integrated session of AN and the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, 1950), on evolutionary morphology (1953). All this strongly slowed down development in the USSR of genetics, theory of evolution, cytology, molecular B., physiology, evolutionary morphology, a systematics and other industries B. Radical normalization of the situation took place in October, 1964 when measures for recovery and development modern genetic were taken and other directions (are created corresponding in-you, All-Union society of geneticists and selectors is organized, training of specialists in these areas is sharply strengthened). It provides active participation of the Soviet biology in rapid development of world natural sciences, at the advanced boundaries to-rogo in the second half of 20 century there is a biology.
Levels of the organization and studying of the vital phenomena
the difficult, hierarchical taxonomy of levels of the organization of its structures is characteristic Of wildlife. All set of the organic world of Earth together with the environment forms biosphere (see) which consists of biogeocenoses — the areas with a characteristic environment occupied by certain complexes (biocenoses) of organisms; biocenoses consist of populations — sets of animal or vegetable organisms of one look living in one territory; populations consist of individuals; individuals of metaphytes consist of the bodies and fabrics formed by various cells; cells, as well as unicells, consist of intracellular structures which are under construction of molecules. The patterns connected with various scales of the phenomena, the principles of the organization, features of relationship with above - and underlying levels are characteristic of each of the allocated levels. Each of levels of the organization of life is studied respectively by the industries modern B.
At molecular level are studied by biochemistry, biophysics, molecular biology, molecular genetics, cytochemistry, many sections of virology, microbiology physical. - the chemical processes which are carried out in a live organism. Researches of live systems at this level show that they consist from low - and the high-molecular organic compounds which are almost not found in inanimate nature. Such biopolymers as proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides, and also lipids (zhiropodobny connections) and components of their molecules are most specific to life (amino acids, nucleotides, simple carbohydrates, fatty acids, etc.). At molecular level study synthesis and a reproduction, the disintegration and interconversions of these connections in a cell happening at the same time exchange of substance, energy and information, regulation of these processes. The main pathways which major feature — participation biol, catalysts — the proteins-enzymes which are strictly selectively carrying out certain chemical reactions are found already out. The structure of a number of proteins and some nucleic acids, and also many simple organic compounds is studied. It is shown that the chemical energy which is released in the course biol, oxidations (glycolysis, breath), stocks up in the form of high-energy (makroergichesky) connections, generally adenosinephosphoric acids (ATP, etc.), and further it is used in the processes demanding inflow of energy (synthesis and transport of substances, muscular contraction, etc.). Outstanding success of B. — opening genetic code (see). Hereditary properties of an organism «are written down» in molecules deoxyribonucleic to - you are (DNA) four types of the monomers nucleotides alternating in a certain sequence. Ability of molecules DNA to double (to samokopirovatsya) provides their reproduction in cells of an organism and hereditary transfer from parents to descendants. Implementation of hereditary information happens with the participation of the molecules synthesized on matrix molecules DNA ribonucleic to - you are RNA which are transferred from chromosomes of a kernel to special intracellular particles — ribosomes (see) where biosynthesis of protein is carried out. Thus, the heredity coded in DNA controls through proteins-enzymes both structural proteins, and all main properties of cells and an organism in general.
Biol, researches at molecular level demand allocation and studying of all types of the molecules which are a part of a cell, clarification of their relationship with each other. For division of macromolecules their distinctions in density and the sizes are used (see. Ultratsentrifugirovaniye ), charges (see. Electrophoresis ), the adsorptive properties (see. Chromatography ). The relative spatial relationship of atoms in complicated molecules is studied by method X-ray crystallographic analysis (see). Ways of transformation of substances, speeds of their synthesis and disintegration investigate by introduction of the connections containing radioactive atoms. An important method is also creation of artificial model systems from the allocated cellular components where the processes going in a cell partially are reproduced (all biochemical processes in a cell happen not in uniform mixture of substances, and on the certain cellular structures creating space dissociation of various at the same time proceeding reactions).
Upon transition to a research of the cellular structures consisting from definitely of the picked-up and oriented molecules, B. is lifted to the following level of the organization of life — cellular. At this level cytology, histology and their divisions (a karyology, cytogenetics, cyto - and a histochemistry, cytophysiology, etc.), and also many sections of virology, microbiology and physiology study cell structure and intracellular components, and also communication and the relation between cells in different fabrics and bodies. Cell (see) — the main independently functioning unit of structure of a metaphyte. Many organisms (bacteria, seaweed, fungi, the elementary) consist of one cell are acellular, more precisely. Properties of a cell are defined by its components which are carrying out various functions. In a kernel there are chromosomes containing DNA and, therefore, responsible for preservation and transfer of hereditary properties to daughter cells. Cell energy metabolism — breath, synthesis of ATP, etc. — happens hl. obr. in mitochondrions (see). Maintenance of chemical structure of a cell, active transport of substances in it and from it, transfer of nervous excitement, a form of cells and the nature of their relationship are defined by structure of a cellular cover. Set of cells of one type forms fabric, a functional combination of several fabrics — body. The structure and functions of fabrics and bodies generally are defined by properties of specialized cells.
Researches at the cellular level found out the main components of a cell, a structure of various cells and fabrics and their change in developments. During the studying of cells in the light microscope allowing to see details
about 1 micron apply to bigger picture contrast different methods of fixing, preparation of thin transparent sections, their colourings, etc. (see. Microscopic methods of a research). Localization in a cell of various chemical substances and enzymes is revealed staining histochemical reactions, by places of synthesis of macromolecules — autoradiography (see). Submicroscopy (see) allows to distinguish structures about 5 — 10A, i.e. up to macromolecules though the description of their structure is often complicated because of insufficient picture contrast. Functions of intracellular components study, allocating them from the destroyed (homogenized) cells with sedimentation in centrifuges with various speeds of rotation.
Properties of cells investigate also in the conditions of long cultivation them out of an organism (see. Cultures of cells and fabrics ); using micromanipulators and methods micrurgy (see), make exchange of kernels between cells, confluence (hybridization) of cells etc.
At the level of a complete organism study the processes and the phenomena occurring in an individual (individual) and defining the coordinated functioning of her bodies and systems. This level is investigated physiology (including higher nervous activity), by endocrinology, immunology, embryology, experimental morphology and other industries B. For creation of the general theory ontogenesis (see) the researches directed to opening of causal mechanisms of formation biol, the organizations, its differentiation and integration, implementation of genetic information in ontogenesis are especially interesting. At this level study also mechanisms of work of bodies and systems, their role in life activities of an organism, interferences of bodies, nervous, endocrine and humoral control of their functions, behavior of animals, adaptive changes etc. In an organism of function of different bodies are connected among themselves: hearts — with lungs, one muscles — with others etc. Considerably this interrelation (integration) of parts of an organism is defined by function of hemadens. So, the pancreas and adrenal glands through hormones — insulin and adrenaline — regulate accumulation of a glycogen in a liver and level of sugar in blood. Closed glands are connected with each other by the principle of a feed-back — one iron (e.g., a hypophysis) another activates function (e.g., a thyroid gland) while that suppresses function of the first. Such system allows to maintain constant concentration of hormones and by that to regulate function of all bodies depending on these glands. Even more high level of integration is provided with a nervous system with its central departments, sense bodys, sensory and motor nerves. By means of a nervous system the organism obtains information from all bodies and from external environment; this information is processed by c. N of page, the regulating function of bodies and systems and behavior of an organism.
Among the methods applied at this level were widely adopted Electrophysiologic, consisting in assignment, strengthening and registration bioelectric potential (see). Endocrine regulation is studied by generally biochemical methods (allocation and purification of hormones, synthesis of their analogs, studying of biosynthesis and mechanisms of effect of hormones, etc.). Researches of century of N of of animals and the person include its modeling, including using means cybernetics (see), and also experimental analysis of behavior (presentation of tasks, development of conditioned reflexes etc.).
At the population and specific level the corresponding industries of B. study elementary unit of evolutionary process — population, i.e. the set of individuals of one look inhabiting a certain territory and to a greater or lesser extent isolated from the next same sets. The similar component of a look is capable is long to exist in time and space, to replicate (by means of a reproduction of the individuals entering it) and to be transformed (by means of preferential reproduction of these or those groups of the individuals differing in the genetic relation). Among generations the process of change of structure of population and forms of the organisms entering it bringing in a result to speciation and evolutionary progress proceeds. The unity of populations is defined by potential ability of all individuals who are its part to be crossed (panmixia), so — and to exchange genetic material. The syngenesis characteristic of most of inhabitants of Earth provides as a community of a morphogenetic structure of all fellow members of population, and a possibility of repeated increase in a genetic variety by means of a combination of hereditary elements. Isolation of one population from others does possible existence in the course of evolution of such «various unity». For the organisms breeding in the sexless way (by means of vegetative reproduction, a parthenogenesis or an apomixis), morfo-fiziol. the unity of populations is defined besides by a community of their genetic structure. However concerning such sexless, vegetatively or simple division of the breeding organisms in a strict form the concept of a look is not applicable. Studying of structure and population dynamics is inseparably linked both with molecular, and with cellular, and with organismal approaches. At the same time the genetics by the methods studies the nature of distribution of hereditary features in populations; the morphology, physiology, ecology and other industries of B. investigate population by the methods. Thus, population (see) and look (see) as whole can serve as objects of a research of the most different industries B.
At the biogeotsenotichesky and biospheric level as object of studying of a biogeocenology, ecology, biogeochemistry and other industries of B. serve the processes proceeding in the biogeocenoses (which are often called by ecosystems) — elementary base and functional units of the biosphere. Each population exists in a certain environment and makes a part of multispecific community — the biocenosis occupying a certain habitat — a biotope. In these difficult complexes of live and inert components as primary producers of organic matter serve photosynthesizing plants and chemosynthetic bacteriums. Thus, biogeocenoses are those «blocks» in which the material and power circulations caused by life activity of organisms and in the sum making big biospheric circulation proceed. In structural and power sense a biogeocenosis — the open, rather stable system having the material and power «entrances» and «exits» connecting among themselves adjacent biogeocenoses in a chain. The metabolism between biogeocenoses is carried out in gaseous, liquid, firm phases and, according to V. I. Vernadsky, in a peculiar form of living material (the loudspeaker of populations of plants and animals, migration of organisms, etc.). From the biogeochemical point of view of migration of substance in chains of biogeocenoses can be considered as series of the interfaced processes of dispersion and concoction of substance in organisms, soils, waters and the atmosphere.
Important practical value got in the second half of 20 century studying of a biological effeciency of biogeocenoses (primary — utilization of energy of solar radiation by means of photosynthesis, and secondary — uses by heterotrophic organisms of the energy reserved by autotrophic organisms). Need of independent studying of biogeotsenotichesky (biospheric) level of the organization of live is caused by the fact that biogeocenoses — Wednesday, in a cut proceed any vital processes on our planet. At this level the complex researches covering the relationship of the biotic and abiotic components entering a biogeocenosis which is finding out migrations of living material in the biosphere, a way and pattern of course of power circulations are conducted. Such broad approach giving the chance, in particular, to expect effects of economic activity of the person, gains distribution and in the form of the International biological program designed to coordinate efforts of biologists of many countries.
Concentration biol, researches on levels of the organization of live assumes interaction of various industries of B. that is extremely productive since enriches adjacent biol, sciences with the new ideas and methods.
Value of biology for medicine
the Most important practical aspect of B. — use of its achievements in medicine. Progress and B.'s opening determined the modern level of medical science. Further progress of medicine is also based on development of biology. Representations about macro - and a microscopic structure of a human body, about functions of its bodies and cells lean hl. obr. on biol, researches. Anatomy, histology and human physiology which serve as the base of medical disciplines — pathological anatomy, pathological physiology, etc., study both physicians, and biologists. The doctrine about the reasons and spread of infectious diseases and the principles of fight against them is based on microbiological and virologic researches. The majority of disease-producing bacteria is marked already out probably, ways of their transfer are studied, methods of controlling with them are developed. Many pathogenic viruses are allocated and investigated, means of fight against them are developed.
Ideas of mechanisms of the immunity which is the cornerstone of body resistance to infections also lean on biol, researches. The chemical structure of antibodies is studied, mechanisms of their synthesis are investigated. For medicine the research of a tissue incompatibility — the main obstacle for organ transplantation and fabrics is of particular importance. For suppression of immune system of an organism use x-ray radiation and chemical drugs. The overcoming a tissue incompatibility which is not connected with such life-threatening influences will become possible with disclosure of mechanisms of immunity that is feasible only at a wide biol, approach to a problem. Original revolution in treatment of the infectious diseases serving in the past as the leading cause of death is connected with opening of antibiotics. Use in medicine of the substances emitted by microorganisms for fight with each other — the largest merit of B. of 20 century. Quantity production of cheap antibiotics became possible only after the removal of highly productive strains of producers of antibiotics reached by methods of modern genetics. With the increase in average life expectancy of people caused considerably by achievements of medicine the specific weight of diseases of advanced age — cardiovascular, malignant new growths, etc. increased. It put new problems in which solution the important role belongs to biology before modern medicine. So, many diseases of vessels are explained by the disturbances of fatty and cholesteric exchange which are not quite studied by biochemistry and physiology. Cytologists, embryologists, geneticists, biochemists, immunologists, virologists work on a problem of cancer a united front. Already there is a number of achievements in this area. However the radical solution of problems of malignant growth, and also an angenesis and bodies is closely connected with studying of the general patterns of a cellular differentiation.
The genetics of the person, including the medical geneticist studying hereditarily the caused diseases becomes an important object of medicobiological researches now. Already the chromosome numbers connected with disturbance give in to the exact diagnosis of a disease. The genetic analysis allows to find harmful mutations in the person. Reasonable ways of disposal of mankind of harmful mutations are actively discussed in biol, literature. The increasing attention is drawn by a problem of mental health of mankind, the decision a cut it is impossible without deep natural-historical, biological analysis of emergence at animal highest forms of nervous activity. Allocation among biol, disciplines of ethology — science about behavior — significantly brings closer the solution of this most difficult and major problem having not only theoretical, but also philosophical and methodological value.
Some problems of modern biology
the Modern biology abounds with key problems which solution can exert the revolutionizing impact on natural sciences in general and progress of mankind. These are many questions of molecular B. and genetics, physiology and biochemistry of muscles, glands, a nervous system and sense bodys (memory, excitement, braking, etc.); photo and chemosynthesis, power and productivity of natural communities and biosphere in general; fundamental philosophical and methodological issues (form and content, integrity and expediency, progress), etc. Only some of them are in more detail considered.
Structure and functions of macromolecules. Important in biol, the relation of a macromolecule usually have polymeric structure, i.e. consist of many homogeneous, but not identical monomers. So, proteins are formed by 20 types of amino acids, nucleic acids — 4 types of nucleotides, polysaccharides consist of monosaccharides. The sequence of monomers in biopolymers is called their primary structure. Establishment of primary structure — the initial stage of studying of a structure of macromolecules. Primary structure of many proteins, some types of RNA is already defined. Development of methods of definition of the sequence of nucleotides in long chains of RNA and especially DNA — the major task molecular B. Tsepochka of biopolymers is usually curtailed into a spiral (secondary structure); molecules of proteins are also put definitely (tertiary structure) and often connect in macromolecular complexes (quarternary structure). How primary structure of protein defines secondary and tertiary structures as tertiary and quarternary structures of proteins-enzymes define their catalytic activity and specificity of action — it is still found insufficiently out. Molecules of protein join membranes, combine with lipids and nucleic acids in supermolecular structures, forming intracellular components by «self-assembly». Methods of the X-ray crystallographic analysis established tertiary structure of some proteins (e.g., hemoglobin); the functional structure of many enzymes is investigated. Further studying of structure of macromolecules and understanding of how this structure defines their difficult and diverse functions — one of key problems modern B.
Regulation of functions of a cell. Characteristic features of the processes happening in live system — their mutual coherence and dependence on the regulatory mechanisms providing maintenance of relative stability of system even under the changing conditions of the environment. Regulation of intracellular processes can be reached by change of set and intensity of synthesis of fermental and structural proteins, influence on enzymatic activity, change of speed of transport of substances through a cell membrane and others biol, membranes. Synthesis of protein depends on synthesis of the molecules RNA transferring information from the corresponding gene — the site of DNA. Thus, «inclusion» of a gene — the beginning of synthesis on it of molecule RNA — one of places of regulation of synthesis of protein. So far only for bacteria one of schemes of regulation of digestion of nutrients of the environment reached by inclusion and switching off of the genes defining synthesis of necessary enzymes is opened. The molecular mechanism of inclusion of genes (in particular) is not found out from metaphytes, and it remains a priority of molecular B. Skorost of synthesis of protein can be regulated, apparently, and directly on site synthesis — on ribosomes (see). Other, more operational system of regulation is based on change of enzymatic activity that is reached by interaction of these or those substances with a molecule of enzyme and reversible modification of its tertiary structure. If enzyme catalyzes initial reaction in a chain of chemical transformations, and the substance suppressing its activity — an end product of this chain, then the system of a feed-back which is automatically maintaining constant concentration of an end product is installed. Speed of chemical processes in a cell can depend also on rate of receipt in a cell, its kernel, in a mitochondrion of the corresponding substances or speed of their removal that is defined by properties biol, membranes and enzymes. Due to the lack of complete idea of regulation of intracellular processes many researchers work on this problem.
Ontogeny of organisms. At the organisms breeding sexually life of each new individual begins with one cell — an oosperm, a cut repeatedly shares and forms a set of cells; in each of them there is a kernel with a full range of chromosomes, i.e. the genes responsible for development of all signs and properties of an organism contain. Meanwhile ways of development of cells are various. It means that in development of each cell in it only those genes which function is necessary for development of this fabric (body) work. Identification of the inclusions mechanism of genes in the course of a cellular differentiation — one of the main problems of B. of development. Some factors defining such inclusion (inhomogeneity of cytoplasm of egg, influence of one embryonal fabrics on others, effect of hormones etc.) are already known. Protein synthesis is carried out under control of genes. But properties and signs of a metaphyte do not come down to features of its proteins; they are defined by a differentiation of the cells differing on a structure and function, their bonds with each other, different bodies by training and fabrics. The important and still not solved problem — clarification of the mechanism of a differentiation at a stage from protein synthesis before emergence of properties of the cells and their characteristic movements leading to formation of bodies. It is possible that the major role in this process is played by squirrels of cellular covers. The creation of the harmonious theory of ontogenesis requiring a solution of the problem of integration of the differentiated fabrics and bodies in a complete organism i.e. implementations of heredity, will have the revolutionizing effect on many sections B.
Historical development of organisms. More than in 100 years which passed since emergence of the book of Ch. Darvin «About the origin of species by natural selection» the huge sum of the facts confirmed basic correctness of the theory of evolution constructed by it. However many important provisions it are not drafted yet. From the evolutionary and genetic point of view population can be considered as elementary unit of evolutionary process, and steady change of its hereditary features — the elementary evolutionary phenomenon. Such approach allows to allocate the major evolutionary factors (mutational process, isolation, waves of number, natural selection) and evolutionary material (mutations). It is not clear yet whether only these factors act on macroevolutionary level, i.e. speciations, or in emergence of large groups of organisms (childbirth, families, groups etc.) are higher others participate, unknown factors and mechanisms so far. It is possible that all macroevolutionary phenomena are reduced to change at the intraspecific level. The solution of the problem of specific factors of macroevolution is connected with opening of mechanisms of the directed development of groups observed sometimes as if that, perhaps, depends on existence of the «bans» imposed by a structure and the genetic constitution of an organism. So, originally not basic change connected with acquisition by ancestors of chordates of a back string — a chord, defined afterwards different ways of development of large branches of fauna: 1) emergence of an autoskeleton and the centralized nervous system, development of a brain with dominance of conditioned reflexes over unconditional at vertebrata; 2) emergence of an outside skeleton and development of a nervous system of other type with dominance of extremely composite bezuslovnoreflektorny reactions at invertebrates. Research of features of «bans», mechanisms of their emergence and disappearance during evolution — the important task connected with a solution of the problem of «the sewerage of development» and opening of patterns of evolution of wildlife. The concept «progressive development», «progress» is nowadays dismembered on progress morphological, biological, group, biogeotsenotichesky and unlimited. So, emergence in the biosphere of Earth of the person — beings, in Krom, on a trope of F. Engels, «... the nature comes to understanding of itself...» (Marx K. and Engels F., Compositions, 2 prod., t. 20, page 357) — result of unlimited progress. Opening of difficult dependences between acquisition in the course of evolution of the devices of basic character (lying on the way of unlimited progress) or the private devices (which are leading to prosperity of group, but not exempting it from bonds with the former habitat), opening of the patterns causing emergence of the absolute devices in one cases and leading to successful survival of rather primitive organisms in others — all this important research problems of the foreseeable future.
A specific place is held by problems of a look and speciation. A look — qualitatively peculiar stage of development of wildlife, real-life set of the individuals combined by a possibility of prolific crossing (components the system which is genetically closed for individuals of other types). From this point of view speciation — transition of genetically open circuits (populations) in genetically closed. Many parties of this process are not clear yet that it is partly connected with insufficient definiteness of the concept «look» of the annex to different groups of organisms. It inevitably affects a systematics and taxonomy — the industries of B. occupied with classification and a taxonomy of types (periodically erupting disputes on reality of system and genealogy, etc. from here). Theoretical development of problems of a look and speciation is stimulated by continuous replenishment of methods of a systematics with new approaches and receptions (e.g., biochemical, genetic, mathematical, etc.).
An origin of life — one from methodologically important problems of biology, to-ruyu do not remove the improbable assumption of entering of life to Earth from other worlds, theories about continuous emergence of life on our planet during the entire periods of its history. Scientific approach consists in finding out here in what conditions life on Earth arose (it occurred several billions years ago) and to try to model processes which at the same time could happen, reconstructing experimentally consecutive stages of emergence of life. So, on the basis of data on physical. and a chemical condition of the atmosphere and the Earth's surface during that era the theoretical and experimental evidence of a possibility of synthesis of the elementary hydrocarbons and more complex organic compounds — amino acids and mononucleotides is obtained that confirms basic probability of their polymerization in short chains — peptides and oligonucleotides. However the following stage of an origin of life is not studied yet. Essential to the theory was use of a concept of natural selection to the organic structures which are on the verge of live and lifeless. Natural selection can play a constructive role in evolution only in use to the self-breeding structures capable to store and to repeatedly reproduce information which is contained in them. Only nucleic acids (preferential DNA) which self-copying can happen only at observance of a number of conditions (existence of mononucleotides, supply of energy and presence of enzymes which carry out polymerization — complementary to the existing polynucleotide, repeating thereby information which is contained in it) meet these requirements. Self-copying of other chemical connections and in other, simpler conditions is still unknown. The main difficulty of the theory, thus, consists that for doubling of nucleic acids fermental proteins are necessary, and for creation of proteins nucleic acids are necessary. After emergence of primary self-breeding system to present its further evolution already less difficult — the principles which are already opened by Darwin which define evolution of more difficult organisms begin to work here. As the origins of life on Earth are unknown, it is difficult to estimate probability of emergence of life in extraterrestrial conditions. Proceeding from astronomical data on plurality of planetary systems in the Universe and from rather high probability of emergence of the conditions compatible to life, many scientists allow multiple emergence of life. However there is also other point of view that mortal life extremely rare, almost unique phenomenon in the foreseeable site of the part of the Galaxy surrounding us.
Biosphere and mankind. Rapid growth of the population of the globe raises a question of borders biol, productivities of the biosphere of Earth. In 100 — 200 years at preservation of modern ways of maintaining terrestrial economy and the same growth rates of number of mankind nearly a half of people would not lack not only food and water, but also breathing oxygen. That is why in a short space of time, during life of 2 — 3 generations of people admits necessary, first, to organize strict nature protection and to limit reasonably many crafts and first of all destruction of the woods; secondly, to start the extensive actions directed to sharp increase biol, productivities of the terrestrial biosphere and an intensification biol, circulations both in natural and in cultural biogeocenoses. Normally functioning biosphere of Earth not only supplies mankind with food and the most valuable organic raw materials, but also supports in an equilibrium state gas composition of the atmosphere, solutions of natural waters and water cycle on Earth. Thus, the quantitative and qualitative damage caused by the person to work of the biosphere not only reduces products of organic matter on Earth, but also breaks chemical balance in the atmosphere and natural waters. During the understanding by people of scales of danger and the reasonable relation to the environment of the dwelling — the biosphere of Earth — the future looks differently. Scientific and industrial power of people is already rather big in order that not only to destroy the biosphere, but also to perform meliorative, hydrotechnical and other works of any scale. Primary biol, productivity of Earth is connected with use of the solar energy absorbed during photosynthesis and the energy received by means of chemosynthesis by primary producers. If the mankind passes to increase in average density of a green earth's mantle (for what there are technical capabilities), then this way on a power entrance to the biosphere biol, productivity of Earth can be sharp, by 2 — 3 times, is raised. It can be reached if in the course of melioration and increase in density of a green cover to increase participation of species of green plants in it with high «efficiency» of photosynthesis. The introduction of useful types in communities of plants requires absolutely knowledge of conditions of maintenance and disturbance of biogeotsenotichesky balance, otherwise accidents are possible biol: hozyaystvenno dangerous «flashes» of number of one types, catastrophic decrease in number of others etc. Rationalizing biogeochemical work of natural and cultural biogeocenoses, having put hunting, hunting, fish, forest and other crafts on a reasonable basis, and also having entered into culture from a huge stock of wild types new groups of microorganisms, plants and animals, it is possible to increase by 2 — 3 times biol, productivity and useful to the person biol, productivity of the biosphere. All converting actions which the person shall hold in the biosphere are impossible without knowledge of richness of the main forms and their relationship that assumes need of inventory of animals, plants and microorganisms for different areas of Earth, still not complete. In many large groups of organisms even the qualitative structure of the types of organisms entering into group is unknown. Expansion of inventory demands revival and a sharp intensification of works on a systematics, field biology (botany, zoology, microbiology) and biogeography.
The important practical direction biol, researches in this plan — studying of the habitat of the person in a broad sense and the organization on this basis of rational ways of maintaining the national economy. This direction of researches is connected with nature protection and is conducted generally in biogeotsenologichesky aspect. To carrying out such researches designed to raise biol, productivity of Earth and to provide optimal conditions of existence on our planet for the mankind which is more and more increasing in number, the attention of progressive biologists of the whole world — zoologists and botanists, geneticists and ecologists, physiologists and biochemists, etc. is drawn; their activity in this direction is coordinated by the International biological program.
Progress of biological knowledge in 20 century, the role of biology which increased relatively and absolutely among other sciences and for existence of mankind in general define also other appearance of B. compared with what it was even 30 — 40 years ago. Accumulation of knowledge both in new, and in classical areas B. is promoted by development and use of new methods and devices. New methods of intravital researches (culture of cells, fabrics and bodies, marking of embryos, use of radioisotopes, etc.), use of the devices working at the increased speeds and partially or which are completely automated gained distribution (ultracentrifuges and ultramicrotomes, micromanipulators, electrocardiographs, electroencephalographs, polygraphs, spectrophotometers, mass spectrographs, etc.). The number of the biological institutes, biological research stations, reserves and national parks (playing an important role and as «natural laboratories») grows; laboratories in which it is possible to study actions of any combinations climatic and physical are created. - chemical factors (biotrons, phytotronas), biological institutions are equipped with electronic computers; in the increasing number of special biological in-t and on biol, f-takh high fur boots shots of highly skilled biologists of different profiles prepare. On level biol, researches it is possible to judge nowadays material development of society since the biology becomes real productive force. It is guarantee of blossoming of biology in the future that, undoubtedly, will be marked by discovery of new fundamental patterns of wildlife. Existence of mankind in the biosphere of Earth is closely connected with achievements in the solution of many biological problems. The biology becomes scientific, a rationale of the relations between the person and the nature.
History — Azimov A. Short history of biology, the lane with English, M., 1967; History of theories of evolution in biology, under the editorship of V. I. Polyansky and Yu. I. Polyansky, M. — JI., 1966; JI at N - kevich V. V. From Heraclitus to Darwin, Sketches on stories of biology, t. 1 — 2, M., 1960; Development of biology in the USSR, under the editorship of B. E. Bykhovsky, M., 1967, bibliogr.; Nordenskiold E. The history of biology, N. Y., 1942; Singer Ch. A history of biology to about the year 1900, L. — N. Y., 1959.
General works — Bauer E. S. Theoretical biology, M. — JI., 1935; Bernal Dzh. Emergence of life, the lane with English, M., 1969, bibliogr.; Bresler S. E. Introduction to molecular biology, M. — JI., 1966; Introduction to molecular biology, the lane with English, under the editorship of V. O. Shpikiter, M., 1967; Vernadsky V. I. Biosphere, M., 1967; Willie K. and Detye V. Biologiya, lane with English, M., 1974, bibliogr.; Winchester A. M. Fundamentals of modern biology, the lane with English, M., 1967; JI e in and V.'s N of JI. The handbook according to the bibliography for biologists, M. — JI., 1960; On the way to theoretical biology, Prolegomena, under the editorship of B. of JI. Astaurova, M., 1970; The General biology, under the editorship of D. K. Belyaev and Yu. Ya. Kerkis, M., 1966; The General biology, under the editorship of Yu. I. Polyansky, M., 1966; Oparin A. I. Life, its nature, origin and development, M., 1968; Modern problems of theory of evolution, under the editorship of V. I. Polyansky and Yu. I. Polyansky, JI., 1967; Theoretical and mathematical biology, the lane with English, M., 1968; Frolov I. T. Sketches of methodology of a biological research (system of methods of biology), M., 1965; Shmalgauzen I. I. Cybernetic questions of biology, Novosibirsk, 1968; about N, Factors of evolution, M., 1968; it, Problems of Darwinism, JI., 1969; Bertalanffy L. Theoretische Biologie, Bd 1—2, B., 1932 — 1942; B o g e n H. - J. Knaurs Buch der modernen Biologie, Miinchen — Zurich, 1967; Die Evolution der Organismen, hrsg, v. G. Heberer, Bd 1 — 3, Stuttgart, 1967; Gardiner M. S. a. F 1 e m i s t e of S.С. The principles of general biology, L., 1967; Gr a s s έ P.e. Biologie g^rale, P., 1966; Handbuch der Biologie, hrsg. v. L. Bertalanffy, Potsdam, 1942 — 1950; Huxley J. S. Evolution, modern synthesis, L., 1963; Odum E. P. Fundamentals of ecology, Philadelphia, 1971, bibliogr.; Progress in the theoretical biology, v. 1, N. Y. — L., 1967; Ramsay J. A. The experimental basis of modern biology, Cambridge, 1965; W e i s z P. B. The science of biology, N. Y. 1971.
Periodicals — The bulletin of the Moscow society of testers of the nature, M., since 1829; The Magazine of the general biology, M., since 1940; Magazine of evolutionary biochemistry and physiology, JI., since 1965; News of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, a Series biological, M., since 1936; Molecular biology, M., since 1967; Radiobiology, M., since 1961; The Abstract Biology magazine, M., with 19 54; Achievements of modern biology, M., since 1934; Acta biotheoretica, Leiden, since 1935; Berichte liber die wissenschaftliche Biologie, B., since 1926; Bibliographia biotheoretica, Leiden, since 1936; Biological abstracts, Philadelphia, since 1926; British Journal of Experimental Biology, L., since 1929 (1923 — 1928 — Journal of Experimental Biology); Developmental Biology, N. Y., since 1959; International Abstracts of Biological Sciences, L., since 1954; Journal of Cell Biology, N. Y., since 1955; Journal of Molecular Biology, L., since 1959; Journal of Theoretical Biology, L., since 1961.
B. L. Astaurov, A. E. Gaysinovich, A. A. Nenfakh, H. V. Timofeev-Resovsky, A. V. Yablokov. (It is printed on the 3rd prod. BSE with some reductions.)