BIOGEOGRAPHY (grech, bios life + geographia zemleopisany) — the science studying patterns of distribution and placement on Earth of plants, animals and microorganisms.
B. is intermediate between geography and biology (see). Main problems of B.: 1) studying of flora, fauna and their set — biotas of various parts of the globe; 2) division into districts of the globe — allocation of floristic, faunistic and biotic regions of various rank on the land and in the ocean — kingdoms, areas, subareas, provinces, districts, sites; 3) detection of ability of organisms to resettlement and the modern ecological conditions favoring or interfering this resettlement; 4) studying of dependence of patterns of resettlement and placement of organisms from geological history of Earth; 5) studying of dependence of distribution biocenoses (see) from modern ecological conditions and features of geological history. Modern B. widely applies methods of quantitative assessment: calculation of number of individuals, products and reserve of biomass of communities and their components.
Main practical applications of B.: identification of natural resources of a vegetable cover and animal population and ways of rational use and protection of these resources; development of measures of pest control of economy and with unhealthy organisms of the person taking into account regional conditions; creation of the most productive artificial biocenoses. Biogeographical patterns are the cornerstone of a research of transmissible, many infectious diseases and helminthic invasions, especially during the studying of their geographical distribution.
Bibliography: A. G. Biogeografiya's ravens (with elements of biology), M., 1963, bibliogr.; Neill Yu. Geography of life, the lane with English, M., 1973; Lem ie G. Rgyos1e de biog6ographie, P., 1967; N e w b i-g i n Μ. I. Piant and animal geography, N. Y., 1968.
A. G. Voronov.