BIOGEOCENOSIS

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

BIOGEOCENOSIS (Greek bios life + + ge the earth + koinos the general) — the uniform natural complex representing phytome, animals and microorganisms with the respective site of the land surface (biotope). Properties of the atmosphere, B. is characterized specific to it, (microclimate), a geological structure, conditions of a relief, the soil, a water relationships with formation of the special system possessing a certain type of a metabolism and energy between various organisms, and also organisms and the habitat. Thus, B. is set of biotic and abiotic factors — biocenosis (see) and biotope (see).

The concept about B. was entered by the academician V. I. Sukachyov in 1940 B. has a certain taxonomical value, representing the smallest complete morphological part of a geographical landscape. At the same time B. is not quite homogeneous and represents set of homogeneous sites — parcels. Parcels differ not only on the dominating plants, but also on a quantitative ratio, species composition and structure of a vegetable cover in general, the animal and microbic population and on a nek-eye to features of soils, a microclimate, waters and other components B. B.'s borders in the vertical and horizontal direction are defined by borders of plant community (phytocenosis). Each B. is characterized by a certain type of small (biological) circulation, i.e. a metabolism between soils, a vegetable cover, animals and microbes. The special section of biology — a biogeocenology is engaged in studying of these questions.

Separate B. can include causative agents of diseases, their carriers and carriers therefore B.'s studying is of great importance for medico-geographical researches. The concept B. is very important for understanding of essence of the natural centers of diseases of the person — see. Natural ochagovost (diseases). Sites of an ochagovost in which the contagium remains also during the interepidemic periods are connected with one types B.; in other types B. the activator appears incidentally, during the periods of mass reproduction of carriers and carriers (sites of carrying out of an infection). So, in the desert center of plague loops of sands and slopes of beams with holes of a big sandwort — sites of an ochagovost, and barkhan sands, takyrs, saline soils and solonetzic soils — sites of carrying out. The development cycle of activators, carriers and carriers or is carried out within one B., or demands transition them from one B. in another.


Bibliography: The biosphere, the lane with English, under the editorship of M. S. Gilyarov, M., 1972; Sukachyov V. N. Bases of the theory of a biogeocenology, Yubileyn. Saturday. Academy of Sciences of the USSR, it is devoted. to the 30 anniversary Great Oktyabrsk. sots. revolutions, t. 2, with, 283, M., 19 47, bibliogr.; it, About a ratio of concepts a geographical landscape and a biogeocenosis, in book: Vopr, geography, Saturday. 16, page 45, M., 1949, bibliogr.

A. G. Voronov.

Яндекс.Метрика