biochemistry (biological chemistry)

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

BIOCHEMISTRY (biological chemistry) — the biological science studying the chemical nature of the substances which are a part of live organisms, their transformations and communication of these transformations with activity of bodies and fabrics. Set of the processes inseparably linked with life activity, it is accepted to call a metabolism (see. Metabolism and energy ).

Studying of structure of live organisms long since drew attention of scientists as to number of the substances which are a part of live organisms in addition to water, mineral elements, lipids, carbohydrates etc., a number of the most complex organic compounds belongs: proteins and their complexes with some other biopolymers, first of all with nucleic acids.

The possibility of spontaneous association (under certain conditions) of a large number of proteinaceous molecules with formation of complex supermolecular structures, napr, a proteinaceous cover of a tail of a phage, some cellular organoids etc. is established. It allowed to enter a concept about the self-gathering systems. Such researches create premises for a solution of the problem of formation of the most complex supermolecular structures possessing signs and properties of living matter from the high-molecular organic compounds which arose once in the nature in the abiogenous way.

Modern B. as independent science developed at a boundary of 19 and 20 centuries. Till this time the questions considered nowadays B. were studied from the different parties by organic chemistry and physiology. Organic chemistry (see), studying carbonaceous connections in general, is engaged, in particular, in the analysis p in synthesis of those chemical connections which are a part of living tissue. Physiology (see) along with studying of vital signs studies also the chemical processes which are the cornerstone of life activity. Thus, the biochemistry is a product of development of these two sciences and it can be subdivided into two parts: static (or structural) and dynamic. Static B. is engaged in studying of natural organic matters, their analysis and synthesis whereas dynamic B. studies all set of chemical transformations of these or those organic compounds in the course of life activity. Dynamic B., thus, costs closer to physiology and medicine, than to organic chemistry. The fact that in the beginning B. was called physiological (or medical) chemistry is also explained by it.

As any quickly developing science, soon after the emergence began to be divided B. into a number of the isolated disciplines: biochemistry of the person and animals, phytochemistry, biochemistry of microbes (microorganisms) and some other as, despite biochemical unity of all live, in animal and vegetable organisms there are also fundamental differences in character of a metabolism. First of all it concerns processes of assimilation. Plants, unlike animal organisms, have ability to use for creation of the body such simple chemicals as carbon dioxide gas, water, salts of nitric and nitrogenous acids, ammonia, etc. At the same time process of creation of cells of plants demands for the implementation of inflow of energy from the outside in the form of a sunlight. Use of this energy is initially carried out by green autotrophic organisms (plants, protozoa — Euglena, a number of bacteria) which in turn serve as food for all other, so-called heterotrophic organisms (including and the person) inhabiting biosphere (see). Thus, allocation of phytochemistry in special discipline is reasonable as from the theoretical, and practical parties.

Development of a number of industries and agriculture (processing of raw materials of plant and animal origin, preparation of foodstuff, production of vitamin and hormonal drugs, antibiotics etc.) led to allocation in the special section technical B.

During the studying of chemism of various microorganisms researchers faced a number of the specific substances and processes which are of great scientific and practical interest (the antibiotics of a microbic and fungal origin, different types of fermentations having industrial value, formation of proteic matters from carbohydrates and the elementary nitrogenous compounds etc.). All these questions are considered in biochemistry of microorganisms.

In 20 century there was as special discipline a biochemistry of viruses (see. Viruses ).

Requirements of clinical medicine caused emergence clinical biochemistry (see).

From other sections B. which usually are considered as rather isolated disciplines having the problems and specific methods of a research it is necessary to call: evolutionary and comparative B. (biochemical processes and chemical structure of organisms at various stages of their evolutionary development), enzymology (structure and function of enzymes, kinetics of enzymatic reactions), B. of vitamins, hormones, radiation biochemistry, quantum biochemistry — comparison of properties, functions and ways of transformation of biologically important connections with their electronic characteristics received by means of kvantovokhimichesky calculations (see. Quantum biochemistry ).

Especially perspective was a studying of structure and function of proteins and nucleic acids at molecular level. This circle of questions is studied by the sciences which arose on B.'s joints with biology and genetics — molecular biology (see) and biochemical genetics (see).

Historical sketch of development of researches on chemistry of living matter. Studying of living matter from the chemical party began with that moment when there was a need of a research of components of live organisms and the chemical processes which are made in them in connection with requests of applied medicine and agriculture. Researches of medieval alchemists led to accumulation of big actual material on natural organic compounds. In 16 — 17 centuries of view of alchemists gained development in works of yatrokhimik (see. Yatrokhimiya ), considering that life activity of a human body can be understood correctly only from positions of chemistry. So, one of the most visible representatives of a yatrokhimiya — the German doctor and the scientist F. Paracelsus put forward the progressive provision on need of close connection of chemistry with medicine, emphasizing at the same time that a problem of alchemy not in production of gold and silver, and in creation of the fact that he is force and virtue of medicine. Yatrokhimiki administered the drugs of mercury, antimony, iron and other elements in medical practice. Later I. Wang-Gelmont suggested about existence in «juice» of a live body of the special beginnings — the so-called «enzymes» participating in various chemical transformations.

In 17 — 18 centuries the phlogiston theory was widely adopted (see. Chemistry ). The denial of this, wrong in the basis, the theory is connected with M. V. Lomonosov and A. Lavoisier's works who opened and approved conservation law of matter (weight) in science. Lavoisier made the major contribution to development not only chemistry, but also in studying biol, processes. Developing earlier observations of Mayov (J. Mayow, 1643 — 1679), it showed that at breath, as well as during the burning of organic matters, oxygen is absorbed and carbon dioxide gas is emitted. At the same time to them, together with Laplace, it was shown that process of biological oxidation is also a source of animal warmth. This opening stimulated researches on power of metabolism therefore at the beginning of 19 century the amount of heat generated at combustion of carbohydrates, fats and proteins was defined.

R. Reaumur and L. Spallanzani's researches on physiology of digestion became important events of the second half of 18 century. These researchers for the first time studied action of a gastric juice of animals and birds on different types of food (hl. obr. meat) also laid the foundation for studying of enzymes of digestive juices. Emergence of enzymology (enzymology) is usually connected, however, with names of K. S. Kirchhoff (1814), and also by Peyena and Perso (A. Payen, J. Persoz, 1833) who for the first time studied action on starch of enzyme of in vitro amylase.

An important role J. Priestley's works and especially played J. Ingenhouse, opened the phenomenon of photosynthesis (the end of 18 century).

At a boundary of 18 and 19 centuries also other basic researches in the field of comparative biochemistry were conducted; then existence of cycle of matter in the nature was established.

Static B.'s progress was from the very beginning inseparably linked with development of organic chemistry.

A push to development of chemistry of natural compounds were researches of the Swedish chemist K. Sheele (1742 — 1786). It allocated and described properties of a number of natural compounds — milk, wine, lemon, oxalic, apple acids, glycerin and amyl alcohol, etc. I. Bertselius's researches and 10 were of great importance. Libikh, ended with development at the beginning of 19 century of methods of a quantitative ultimate analysis of organic compounds. After this attempts to synthesize natural organic matters began. The achieved success — synthesis in 1828 of urea F. Veller, acetic to - you are A. Kolbe (1844), P. Bertlo (1850) fats, carbohydrates A. M. Butlerov (1861) — were of especially great importance since showed a possibility of synthesis of in vitro of a number of the organic matters which are a part of animal fabrics or being end products of exchange. Thereby full insolvency of vitalistic representations, eurysynusic in 18 — 19 centuries was established (see Vitalism). In the second half 18 — the beginning of 19 century also many other important researches were conducted: from urinary stones it was allocated uric to - that (Bergman and Sheele), from bile — cholesterol [J. Conradi], from honey — glucose and fructose (T. Lovits), from leaves of green plants — a pigment a chlorophyll [], as a part of muscles creatine was discovered by Pelletye and Kavent (J. Pelletier, J. Caventou) [Shev-rel (M. of E. Chevreul)]. Existence of special group of organic compounds — the vegetable alkaloids (Sertyurner, Meyster, etc.) which found late application in medical practice was shown. From gelatin and bull meat by their hydrolysis the first amino acids — glycine and a leucine [J. Proust, were received 1819; H. Braconnot, 1820].

In France in K. Bernard's laboratory as a part of tissue of a liver the glycogen (1857) was open, ways of its education and mechanisms regulating its splitting are studied. In Germany in laboratories E. Fischer, E. F. Goppe-Zeyler, A. Kossel, E. Abdergalden and others the structure and properties of proteins, and also products of their hydrolysis, including and enzymatic were studied.

In connection with the description of yeast cells (K. Konyar-Latur in France and T. Shvann in Germany, 1836 — 1838) began to study actively process of fermentation (Libikh, Pasteur, etc.). Contrary to opinion of Libikh considering process of fermentation as purely chemical process proceeding with obligatory participation of oxygen L. Pasteur established a possibility of existence of an anaerobiosis i.e. life for lack of air, at the expense of fermentation energy (the process, inseparably linked, in his opinion, with life activity of cells, napr, cells of yeast). This question it was cleared up by experiences of M. M. Manasseina (1871) who showed a possibility of fermentation of sugar destroyed (grinding with sand) yeast cells, and especially Bukhner (1897) works on the nature of fermentation. Bukhner managed to receive from yeast cells the acellular juice capable, like live yeast, to ferment sugar with formation of alcohol and carbonic acid.

Emergence and development of biological (physiological) chemistry

resulted Accumulation of a large number of data of rather chemical composition of the vegetable and animal organisms and chemical processes proceeding in them in need of systematization and generalizations for area B. J. E. Simon's textbook «Handbuch der angewandten medizinischen Chemie» (1842) was the first work in this plan. Obviously, exactly from now on the term «biological (physiological) chemistry» was approved in science.

A little later (1846) Libikh's monograph «Die Tierchemie oder die organische Chemie in ihrer Anwendung auf Physiologie und Pathologie» was published. In Russia the first textbook of physiological chemistry was published by professor of the Kharkiv university A. I. Hodnev in 1847. Periodic literature in biological (physiological) chemistry regularly began to leave since 1873 in Germany. This year Mali (L. R. Maly) published «Jahres-Bericht uber die Fortschritte der Tierchemie». B of 1877 E. F. Goppe-Zeyler was based the scientific magazine «by Zeitschr. fur physiologische Chemie», renamed afterwards into «Hoppe-Seyler’s Zeitschr. fur physiologische Chemie». Later biochemical magazines began to be issued in many countries of the world in English, French, Russian and other languages.

In the second half of 19 century at medical faculties of many Russians and foreign universities special departments medical, or physiological, chemistry were founded. In Russia the first department of medical chemistry was organized by A. Ya. Danilevsky in 1863 in Kazan un-those. In 1864 A. D. Bulyginsky founded department of medical chemistry on medical f-those Moscow un-that. Soon the departments of medical chemistry later renamed into departments of physiological chemistry arise at medical faculties of other universities. In 1892 the department of physiological chemistry organized by A. Ya. Danilevsky in Military-medical (medicochirurgical) academy in St. Petersburg begins to function. However reading separate sections of a course of physiological chemistry was carried out there much earlier (1862 — 1874) at department of chemistry (And. P. Borodin).

Original blossoming of B. occurred in 20 century. Right at the beginning the polypeptide theory of a structure of proteins was oho formulated and experimentally proved (E. Fischer, 1901 — 1902, etc.). Later a number of analytical methods, including the micromethods allowing to study amino-acid structure of the minimum quantities of protein (several milligrams) was developed; the method was widely adopted chromatography (see), M. S for the first time developed by the Russian scientist. In color (1901 — 1910), methods of the X-ray crystallographic analysis (see), «marked atoms» (isotope indication), a tsitospektrofotometriya, submicroscopy (see). The preparative proteinaceous chemistry tries to obtain outstanding successes, effective methods of allocation and fractionation of proteins and enzymes and determination of their molecular weight are developed [S. Cohen, A. Tiselius, Svedberg (T. Swedberg)].

Primary, secondary, tertiary and quarternary structure of many proteins (including and enzymes) and polypeptides is deciphered. A number of the important, having biological activity proteic matters is synthesized.

The largest merits in development of this direction are connected with L. Polinga and R. Corey's names — structure of polypeptide chains of protein (1951); V. Vinyo — structure and synthesis of oxytocin and vasopressin (1953); F. Sanger — structure of insulin (1953); W. Stein and S. Moore — interpretation of a formula of ribonuclease, creation of the automatic machine for definition of amino-acid composition of protein hydrolyzates; Peruttsa (M. F. Perutz), to J. Kendrew and D. Phillips — interpretation by means of methods of the X-ray crystallographic analysis of structure and creation of three-dimensional models of molecules of a myoglobin, hemoglobin, a lysozyme and some other proteins (1960 and the next years).

J. Sumner's works who for the first time proved (1926) proteinaceous nature of enzyme of urease had outstanding value; J. Northrop and Kunitts's researches (M. Kunitz) on cleaning and receiving crystal drugs of enzymes — pepsin and others (1930); W. A. Engelgardt about existence ATF-aznoy of activity at kontraktilny protein of muscles of a myosin (1939 — 1942) etc. The large number of works is devoted to studying of the mechanism of an enzyme catalysis [Mikhaelis and Menthene (L. Michaelis, M. by L. Menten), 1913; R. Willstätter, Teorell, Koshlend (N. of Theorell, D. E. Koshland), A. E. Braunstein and M. M. Shemyakin, 1963; Shtraub (F. Century of Straub), etc.], difficult multifermental complexes (S.E. Severin, F. Linen, etc.), roles of structure of cells in implementation of enzymatic reactions, the nature of the active and allosteric centers in molecules of enzymes (see Enzymes), primary structure of enzymes [V. Shorm, Anfinsen (S. V. Anfinsen), V. N. Orekhovich, etc.], regulation of activity of a number of enzymes hormones (V. S. Ilyin, etc.). Properties of «families of enzymes» — isoenzymes are studied [Markert, Kaplan, Vroblevsky (S. of Markert, N. Kaplan, F. Wroblewski), 1960 — 1961].

An important stage in B.'s development was interpretation of the mechanism of biosynthesis of protein with the participation of ribosomes, information and transport forms of RNA [Zh. Brashe, F. Jacob, J. Monod, 1953 — 1961; A. N. Belozersky (1959); A.S. Spirin, A. A. Bayev (1957 and next years)].

Brilliant works of E. Chargaff, Zh. Deyvidson, especially J. Watson, T. Shout and Wilkins (M. of Wilkins), come to the end with clarification of structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (see). The two-helical structure of DNA and role it in transfer of hereditary information is established. Synthesis of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) A. Kornberg (1960 — 1968), S. Weiss, S. Ochoa is carried out. Decides (1962 and the next years) one of the central problems of modern B. — is deciphered a RNA-amino-acid code [Shout, M. Nirenberg, Mateja (F. Crick, J. H. Matthaei), etc.].

One of genes and a phage fkh174 is for the first time synthesized. The concept about the molecular diseases connected with certain defects in structure of DNA of the chromosomal device of a cell is entered (see. Molecular genetics). The theory of regulation of work of cistrons (see), various proteins and enzymes, responsible for synthesis is developed (Jacob, Mono), studying of the mechanism of protein (nitrogenous) metabolism continues.

Earlier classical researches of I. P. Pavlov and his school the main physiological and biochemical mechanisms of work of digestive glands reveal. The commonwealth of laboratories of A. Ya. Danilevsky and M. V. Nentsky with I. P. Pavlov's laboratory was especially fruitful, a cut led to clarification of the place of an ureapoiesis (in a liver). F. Gopkins and it sotr. (England) established value of earlier unknown components of food, having developed the new concept of the diseases caused by nutritional deficiency on this basis. Existence of replaceable and irreplaceable amino acids is established, norms of protein in food are developed. The intermediate metabolism of amino acids — deamination, interamination (A. E. Braunstein and M. G. Kritsman), decarboxylation, their interconversions and features of exchange is deciphered (S. R. Mardashev, etc.). Mechanisms of biosynthesis of urea (G. Krebs), creatine and creatinine become clear, the group of extractive nitrogenous substances of muscles — dipeptides carnosine, a carnitine, anserine opens and exposed to detailed studying [V. S. Gulevich, D. Ackermann,

S.E. Severin, etc.]. Features of process of a nitrogen metabolism at plants are exposed to detailed studying (D. N. Pryanishnikov, V. L. Kretovich, etc.). A specific place was held by studying of disturbances of a nitrogen metabolism at animals and the person at proteinaceous insufficiency (S. Ya. Kaplansky, Yu. M. Gefter, etc.). Synthesis of the purine and pirimidinovy bases is carried out, mechanisms of education uric to - you become clear, decomposition products of hemoglobin are in details investigated (pigments of bile, a calla and urine), ways of education gem and origins of acute and inborn forms of porphyrias and purpurinurias are deciphered.

Outstanding success is achieved in interpretation of structure of the major carbohydrates [A. A. Kolli, Tollens, Killiani, Hauort (B.C.Tollens, H. Killiani, W. Haworth), etc.] and mechanisms of carbohydrate metabolism. Transformation of carbohydrates in a digestive tract under the influence of digestive enzymes and intestinal microorganisms is found in detail out (in particular, from vegetarians); the works devoted to a role of a liver in carbohydrate metabolism and maintenance of concentration of sugar in the blood at the certain level begun in the middle of the last century by K. Bernard and E. Pflyuger are specified and extend mechanisms of synthesis of a glycogen (with the participation of UDF-glucose) and its disintegration are deciphered [K. Cory, L. F. Leloir, etc.]; schemes of an intermediate metabolism of carbohydrates (a glycoclastic, pentozny cycle, a cycle of Tricarboxylic acids) are created; character of separate intermediate products of exchange becomes clear [Ya. O. Parnas, G. Embden, O. Meyergof, L. A. Ivanov, S. P. Kostychev, A. Harden, Krebs, F. Lipmann, S. Cohen, W. A. Engelgardt, etc.]. The biochemical mechanisms of disturbance of carbohydrate metabolism (diabetes, a galactosemia, glycogenoses, etc.) connected with hereditary defects of the corresponding fermental systems become clear.

Outstanding success is achieved in interpretation of structure of lipids: phospholipids, cerebrosides, gangliosides, sterols and sterid [Tirfelder, A. Vindaus, A. Butenandt, Ruzhichka, Reykhstein (H. Thierfelder, A. Ruzicka, T. Reichstein), etc.].

M. V. Nentsky, F. Knoop (1904) and H. Dakin's works create the theory of β-oxidation of fatty acids. Development of modern ideas of ways of oxidation (with the participation of coenzyme A) and synthesis (with participation malonil-KOA) fatty acids and difficult lipids is connected with Leluar, Linen, Lipmann, Green's names (D. E. Green), Kennedy (E. Kennedy), etc.

Significant progress is made during the studying of the mechanism of biological oxidation. One of the first theories of biological oxidation (the so-called peroxide theory) was offered by A. N. Bach (see biological oxidation). Later there was a theory, according to a cut various substrates of cellular respiration are exposed to oxidation and their carbon eventually turns into CO2 at the expense of oxygen of not absorbed air, and oxygen of water (V. I. Palladiya, 1908). Further in development of the modern theory of tissue respiration the large contribution was made by G. Wiland's works, Tunberg (T. Tunberg), L. S. Stern, O. Warburg, Euler, D. Keylin (N. of Euler), etc. belongs to Warburg a merit of opening of one of coenzymes of dehydrogenases — nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide of phosphate (NADF), flavin enzyme and its prosthetic group, the respiratory ferriferous enzyme which received afterwards the name of cytochrome oxydase. The spectrophotometric method of definition of concentration of NAD and NADF (the test of Warburg) which then formed the basis of quantitative methods of definition of a number of biochemical components of blood and fabrics was offered them. Established to Cailyn a role in a chain of respiratory catalysts of ferriferous pigments (tsitokhrom).

Large value had discovery of coenzyme A by Lipmann., allowed to develop a universal cycle of aerobic oxidation of an active form of acetate — atsetil-KOA (a citrate tricarbonic acid cycle).

W. A. Engelgardt, and also Lipmann entered a concept about «high-energy» phosphoric connections, in particular by ATP (see Adenozinfosforny acids) in which energy-rich bonds a considerable part of the energy which is released at tissue respiration accumulates (see biological oxidation).

The possibility of the phosphorylation interfaced to breath (see) in a chain of the respiratory catalysts which are built in in membranes of mitochondrions was shown by V. A. Belitser and H. Kalckar. The large number of works is devoted to studying of the mechanism of oxidizing phosphorylation [Cheyne (V. Chance), P. Mitchell, V. P. Skulachev, etc.].

20 century was marked by interpretation of chemical constitution of all known in a crust, time vitamins (see), the international units of vitamins are entered, the needs for vitamins of the person and animals are established, the vitamin industry is created.

Not less considerable success is achieved in the field of chemistry and biochemistry hormones (see); the structure is studied and steroid hormones of bark of adrenal glands (Vindaus, Reykhstein, Butenandt, Ruzhichka) are synthesized; the structure of hormones of a thyroid gland — thyroxine, a diyodtironin [E. Kendall (E. S. of Kendall), is established 1919; Harrington (S. Harington), 1926]; a medulla of adrenal glands — adrenaline, noradrenaline [J. Takamine, 1907]. Synthesis of insulin is carried out, the structure somatotropic), adrenocorticotropic, melanotsitostimuliruyushchy hormones is established; other hormones of the proteinaceous nature are allocated and studied; schemes of interconversion and exchange of steroid hormones are developed (N. A. Yudayev, etc.). The first data on the mechanism of effect of hormones (AKTG, vasopressin, etc.) on a metabolism are obtained. The mechanism of regulation of functions of closed glands by the principle of a feed-back is deciphered.

Essential data are obtained during the studying of chemical composition and metabolism of a number of the major bodies and fabrics (functional biochemistry). Features in chemical composition of nervous tissue are established. There is a recent trend in B. — a neurochemistry. A number of the difficult lipids making the ground mass of tissues of brain — phosphatides, sphingomyelins, plasmalogens, cerebrosides, holesterida, gangliosides [Tudikhum, Welsh (J. Thudichum, H. Waelsh), A is allocated. B. Palladium, E. M K rep, etc.]. The main patterns of exchange of nervous cells become clear, the role of biologically active amines — adrenaline, noradrenaline, a histamine, serotonin, γ-amino-maslyany to - you, etc. is deciphered. Various psychopharmacological substances opening new opportunities in treatment of various nervous diseases are entered into medical practice. Chemical transmitters of nervous excitement are in detail studied (mediators), widely used, especially in agriculture, various inhibitors of cholinesterase for fight against insects wreckers etc.

Considerable success is achieved during the studying of muscle performance. Sokratitelny proteins of muscles are in detail investigated (see. Muscular tissue). The most important role of ATP in reduction of muscles is established [W. A. Engelgardt and M. N. Lyubimova, Saint-Djyordyi, Shtraub (A. Szent-Gyorgyi, F. Century of Straub)], in the movement of cellular organellas, penetration into bacteria of phages [Weber, Goffmann-Berling (N. of Weber, H. Hoffmann-Berling), I. I. Ivanov, V. Ya. Alexandrov, N. I. Arronet, B. F. Poglazov, etc.]; the mechanism of muscular contraction at molecular level is in detail investigated [Huxley, Hansson (H. Huxley, J. Hanson), G. M. Frank, J. Tonomura, etc.], the role in muscular contraction of an imidazole and its derivatives is studied (G. E. Severin); theories of two-phase muscle performance [W. Hasselbach] etc. are developed.

Important results are received during the studying of structure and properties of blood: respiratory function of blood normal is studied and at a number of morbid conditions; the mechanism of transfer of oxygen from lungs to fabrics and carbonic acids from fabrics to lungs is found out [I. M. Sechenov, J. Haldane, D.van Slyke, J. Barkroft, L. Henderson, S.E. Severin, G.E. Vladimirov, E. M. Krep, G. V. Derviz]; ideas of the mechanism of a blood coagulation are specified and expanded; existence in a blood plasma of a number of new factors at which inborn lack in blood various forms of hemophilia are observed is established. Fractional composition of proteins of a blood plasma is studied (albumine, alpha, beta and gamma-globulins, lipoproteids, etc.). A number of new plasma proteins is discovered (properdin, C-reaktivpy of squirrels, gaptoglobin, cryoglobulin, transferrin, ceruloplasmin, interferon, etc.). Open circuit of kinin — biologically active polypeptides of a blood plasma (bradikinin, collidine) which are playing an important role in regulation of a local and general blood-groove and taking part in the mechanism of development of inflammatory processes, shock and other pathological processes and states.

In modern B.'s development the important role was played by development of a number of special methods of a research: isotope indication, differential centrifuging (division of subcellular organoids), spektrofotometriya (see), massspektrometriya (see), electronic paramagnetic resonance (see), etc.

Some perspectives of development of biochemistry

B.'s Progress considerably determines not only the modern level of medicine, but also its possible further progress. One of the main problems of B. and molecular biology (see) there is a correction of defects of the genetic device (see. Gene therapy ). Radical therapy of the hereditary diseases connected with mutational changes of these or those genes (i.e. sites of DNA), certain proteins and enzymes, responsible for synthesis, in principle is possible only by transplantation of the synthesized in vitro or allocated from cells (e.g., bacteria) similar «healthy» genes. Very tempting task is also mastering the mechanism of regulation of a schitka of the genetic information coded in DNA, and interpretations at molecular level of the mechanism of a cellular differentiation in ontogenesis. The problem of therapy of a number of viral diseases, especially leukoses will probably not be solved until the mechanism of interaction of viruses (in particular, oncogenous) with the infected cell becomes completely clear. In this direction works in many laboratories of the world are intensively conducted. Clarification of a picture of life at molecular level will allow not only to understand completely the processes happening in an organism (a biocatalysis, the mechanism of use of energy of ATP and GTF during the performance of mechanical functions, transfer of nervous excitement, active transport of substances through membranes, the phenomenon of immunity etc.), but also will open new opportunities in creation of effective pharmaceuticals, in fight against a senilism, development of cardiovascular diseases (atherosclerosis), extension of life.

The biochemical centers in the USSR. In system of Academy of Sciences of the USSR the Institute of biochemistry of A. N. Bach, Institute of molecular biology, Institute of chemistry of natural compounds, Institute of evolutionary physiology and biochemistry of I. M. Sechenov, Institute of protein, Institute of physiology and phytochemistry, Institute of biochemistry and physiology of microorganisms, branch of Institute of biochemistry of USSR, Institute of biochemistry of the Automated workplace function. SSR, etc. In system of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences there are an Institute of biological and medical chemistry, Institute of experimental endocrinology and chemistry of hormones, Institute of food, Department of biochemistry of Institute of experimental medicine. There is also a number of biochemical laboratories at other institutes and scientific institutions Academy of Sciences of the USSR, USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, academies of federal republics, in higher education institutions (departments of biochemistry Moscow, Leningrad and other universities, a number of medical institutes, Army medical college etc.), veterinary, agricultural and other scientific institutions. In the USSR there are about 8 thousand members of the All-Union Biochemical Society (AUBS), a cut enters into the European federation of biochemists (FEBS) and into the International biochemical union (IUB).

The radiation biochemistry

Radiation B. studies the changes of a metabolism arising in an organism at action on it ionizing radiation. Radiation causes ionization and excitement of molecules of a cell, their reaction with free arising in an aqueous medium radicals (see) and peroxides that leads to disturbance of structures of biosubstrates of cellular organellas, balance and an interconnection of intracellular biochemical processes. In particular, these shifts in combination with post-radiative effects from damaged by c. the N of page and humoral factors give rise to the secondary disbolism causing the course of a beam disease. An important role in development of a radial illness is played by acceleration of disintegration of nucleoproteids, DNA and simple proteins, braking of their biosynthesis, disturbance of the coordinated effect of enzymes, and also oxidizing phosphorylations (see) in mitochondrions, reduction of amount of ATP in fabrics and the increased oxidability of lipids with formation of peroxides (see. Radial illness , Radiobiology , Radiology medical ).

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I. I. Ivanov; T. A. Fedorova (I am glad.).