BILLROTH Theodor (Billroth Theodor, 1829 — 1894) — the German surgeon. Got a medical education in Greyfsvalda, Goettingen and Berlin. After a scientific trip to Vienna and Paris (1855) worked for Langenbek (Berlin). Since 1860 — professor in Zurich, since 1867 until the end of life — professor in Vienna. Along with surgery went in for pathological anatomy. It described trabeculas of a spleen, a structure of glandular polyps, development of blood vessels. It (in parallel with T. Kokher) developed operation of removal of a craw. T. Billroth the first made an esophagectomy (1872), throats (1873), extensive excision of language at cancer (by 1874 made 10 successful operations), etc. The beginning of surgery is connected with a name of Billroth went. - kish. path; it in 1881 executed the first successful operation of a resection of a stomach at cancer of the gatekeeper (see. Billroth operation ).
Among 160 printing works of T. Billroth the book «Die allgemeine Chirurgie» which sustained 15 editions and translated to many languages is widely known. Big popularity was gained by reports of clinic of Billroth on surgical activity in which the statistics of surgical diseases with the analysis of the long-term results of treatment and medical errors was developed. In 1896 correspondence of the scientist with friends is published; it contains the well-known address to N. I. Pirogov, in Krom T. Billroth recognizes him as the teacher. T. Billroth is an editor of two big multivolume guides — «Handbuch der Chirurgie» and «Deutsche Chirurgie», from the date of the basis of «Archiv fur klinische Chirurgie» was one of his editors. T. Billroth brought up the whole group of pupils among whom there are such large surgeons as Gussenbauer (To. Gussenbauer, 1842 — 1903) — the successor T. Billroth in the Vienna clinic, Common people (V. Czerny, 1842 — 1916), Gakker (V. Hacker, 1852 — 1933), I. Mikulich. In T. Billroth's clinic many Russian surgeons worked.
Works: Beitrage zur pathologischen Histo-logie, V., 1858; Beobachtungs-Studien iiber Wundfieber und accidentelle Wundkrank-heiten, B., 1862; Die allgemeine chirurgische Pathologie und Therapie in 50 Vorlesungen, B., 1869 (Russian lane, SPb., 1884); Die Krankheiten der weiblichen Brustdriisen, Stuttgart, 1880.
Bibliography: Zabludovskiya. M. Theodor Billroth (by century since birth), Is new. hir., t. 8, book 2, page 113, 1929; Rasumowski W. I. Professor Billroth (concerning the 25 anniversary from the date of death), Vestn, hir., t. 3, book 7, page 5, 1923; In r e t z of Page A. Theodor Billroth, pionier de la chirurgie moderne, humaniste et musi-cien, Hist. M£d., t. 9, p. 5, 1959; G e r-s u n at R. Theodor Billroth, Wien u. a., 1922; K e 1 s h J. M. Theodor Billroth and abdominal surgery, Abdom. Surg., v. 14, p. 76, 1972, bibliogr.