BILE PRODUCTION (synonym, bile secretion, cholepoiesis) — the specific function of hepatic cells which is expressed in production of bile.
The beginning of experimental studying of zhelcheobrazovatelny function of a liver is connected with a name of T. Shvann. The big role in studying of a bile production was played by the researches conducted in I. P. Pavlov's laboratory where special methods acute and hron, experiments, the processes allowing to study were developed. and their neurohumoral regulation. it is inseparably linked with the course of exchange processes in an organism. On the one hand, in process. there is excretion of hormone of thyroxine, end products of exchange of hemoglobin (see. Bilious pigments ), cholesterol (see. Bile acids ), and also various connections getting to an organism from the outside, napr, pharmaceuticals. On the other hand, in process. the substances stimulating activity cosecrete went. - kish. a path or participating in the general metabolism — enzymes, hormones, vitamins, etc. (see. Bile ).
Believe that. includes a trance - and intertsellyulyarny filtering of some substances from blood in hepatic capillaries through membranes, and also such active processes as secretion and a reabsorption (see. Liver ).
Constancy of a ratio of concentration of some components (electrolytes, cholesterol, glucose) in plasma and bile forms the basis for recognition of participation of the filtrational mechanism in a bile production at their rather bigger content in plasma. It is established also that excretion of inulin, creatinine, cholesterol and electrolytes with bile at their constant concentration in plasma is proportional to the size of a blood-groove through a liver. At the same time the high clearance of many acid dyes, bilirubin, n-aminobenzaminoacetic to - you and reduction of size of clearance with increase in concentration of these connections in plasma cannot be explained on the basis of the filtrational mechanism Zh.
In experiences with change of osmotic pressure of blood it is shown that in a liver distinction between the mechanism of transition of water and electrolytes depending on fluctuations of an osmotic gradient and the mechanism of transition of bilirubin, bilious salts and some other substances which is not depending on this gradient and representing the active process which is followed by energy consumption is observed.
About a preferential role of active secretion in the mechanism Zh. researches with use of fermental poisons testify. Cyanides, 2,4 dinitrophenol, monoiodoacetic to - that and sodium fluoride reduce the volume of bilious secretion. However cyanides and 2,4 dinitrophenol do not influence qualitative composition of bile (do not prevent receipt of a bromsulfalein and bilirubin in bile) whereas monoiodoacetic to - that and sodium fluoride slow down release of these substances. Floridzin and sodium arsenate also exert impact on qualitative composition of bile, without changing the volume of its secretion. Distinctions in influence of fermental poisons on quantitative and qualitative composition of bile demonstrate existence of separate mechanisms of formation of liquid and dense phases of bile. A significant role in the mechanism Zh. the system hyaluronic acid — hyaluronidase plays.
It is supposed that bilification begins with active secretion hepatocytes of water, bilious to - t and bilirubin, as a result the cut in bilious tubules appears so-called primary bile. The last, passing on the bilious courses, comes into contact with a blood plasma therefore between bile and plasma balance of electrolytes is established. The energy necessary for implementation of biliary secretion is formed due to tissue respiration of cells of a liver and interfaced to it oxidizing phosphorylations (see).
Bilification occurs continuously though intensity of process. even for days sharply fluctuates. amplifies with age. A ratio of components of bile at children other, than at adults. At small animals on 1 kg of body weight of bile it is developed more, than at large. decreases at starvation, overheating of an animal, fall of temperature of a body, an anoxia and increases at meal — especially proteins and fats, strengthening of portal blood circulation. Production of bile is strengthened salt also by others to - you, and also bile at absorption of its separate components in intestines. On strengthening. many substances entering a diet exert impact (mineral waters, egg yolks, etc.). Stimulators. many vegetable matters — extract of hips (Cholosasum), extract or infusion corn a rylets, broth or infusion of flowers of an immortelle are (see. Cholagogue means ). Cholagogue action also many substances of a synthetic origin (safenamid, Cycvalonum, etc.), and also drugs bilious to - t possess (dekholin, Chologonum, etc.).
Strengthening. is defined mainly by humoral mechanisms. It is proved that. amplifies secretin (see) and to a lesser extent gastrin (see). Features of influence on production of bile from a nervous system are studied insufficiently though there are irritations of internals given about influence (a stomach, intestines, a pleura, etc.) on intensity of production of bile. The possibility of uslovnoreflektorny impact on this process is proved. The vagus nerve strengthens., whereas sympathetic — weakens. Disturbances. are observed at some hron, inflammatory diseases of a liver and gall bladder (see. Cholangitis , Cholecystitis etc.) or any other diseases of a liver affecting the fabrics cosecreting bile. Other form of disturbance. disturbance of composition of bile is. In this case some components of bile can drop out in a deposit, form gallstones, cork bilious channels (see. Cholelithiasis ).
Bibliography: Gan_tkevich Ya. V. Nov_ aspect f_z_olog і ї zhovchovid_lennya, F_z_ol. zhurn., t. 21, No. 5, page 690, 1975; Gorshkova S. M. and Kurtsin I. T. Mechanisms of a zhelchevydeleniye, L., 1967; Physiology and pathology of a bile production and zhelchevydeleniye, under the editorship of I. T. Kurtsin, L., 1965; Physiology of digestion, under the editorship of A. V. Solovyov, L., 1974; Fischer A. Physiology and experimental pathology of a liver, the lane with it., page 147, Budapest, 1961; E of of 1 i p-g e of S. Mechanisms and control of secretion of bile water and electrolytes, Gastroenterology, v. 66, p. 281, 1974; Hargreaves T. The liver and bile metabolism, N. Y., 1968; Vachon A. et B a r t h e J. Les sels biliaires, Cah. Med. Lyon, t. 50, p. 2289, 1974.
E. F. Larin.