BIDL George (Beadle George Wells, sort. in 1903) — the American geneticist, the member of National academy of Sciences of the USA (1944), the American academy of arts and sciences and some other foreign academies (Danish royal, Spanish, Indian, etc.); Nobel Prize laureate (1958).
After the termination in 1926 un-that the State of Nebraska worked as the assistant and the experimenter in Kornelskom un-those; in 1931 — 1936 the research associate Californian technological in-that. J. Bidl was elected prof. geneticists in Harvard un-those (1936), the prof. of biology in Stanford un-those (1937), the prof. of biology and chemistry of department of biology Californian technological in-that (1946); was a prof. of biology and the president Chicago un-that (1961 — 1968). Since 1969 J. Bidl consists the honorary president and the member of council Chicago un-that.
J. Bidl is the author of a number of works on the theory of a mutagenesis. Studying together with Efrussi (V. Ephrussi) the mechanism of formation of eye pigments at a fruit fly of a drosophila, suggested that genes control chemical reactions by means of special enzymes. Found jointly with A. H. Sturtevant in 1936 inversions in chromosomes of a drosophila. Showed a possibility of the chemical analysis of function of a gene. Together with Teytem (E. L. Tatum) developed the principle of receiving biochemical mutants of a mold fungus of a neurodispute and a method of their quantitative account; showed that at synthesis of substances in an organism genes control certain links in a long chain of chemical reactions. Together with Teytem formulated situation «one gene — one enzyme». This work was conferred the Nobel Prize. Works J. Bidl and laid the foundation for biochemical genetics.
The amer is honourable doctor Yelsky (1947), Oxford (1959), Illinoyssky (1963) and many others. and foreign high fur boots; consists the foreign member London royal about-va.
Works: The differentiation of eye pigments in drosophila as studied by transplantation, Genetics, v. 21, p. 225, 1936 (sovm, with Ephrussi B.); Genetic control of biochemical reactions in neurospora, Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.), v. 27, p. 499, 1941 (sovm, with Tatum E. L.); Genetic control of metabolism, Washington, 1952; Genes and chemical reactions in neurospora, in book: Les prix Nobel en 1958, p. 147, Stockholm, 1959; An introduction to genetics, N. Y., 1962 (sovm. with Sturtevant A. H.).
Bibliography: Asimov’s biographical encyclopedia of science and technology, p. 696, N. Y., 1972; Brockhaus Enzyklopadie, Bd 2, S. 425, Wiesbaden, 1967.
A. P. Fedotov.