From Big Medical Encyclopedia

BICYCLE SPORT treats sports with the cyclic nature of movements. Competitions are held on the highway, a track and the cross-country terrain (cross-country). The result is estimated on time spent for passing of a distance (the highway, a track) and in the taken place (cross-country). Participants of competitions are divided on a sex, age and sports qualification. By the number of at the same time starting participants distinguish races individual, command and group. On duration — one-day and multi-day (several days in a row with rest in 3 — 5 days, the general distance — 750 — 2500 km). Average speed of the qualified cyclist on marathon races — more than 40 km/h. The distance of races is defined depending on a sex, age and the sports category of participants: for men a distance on a track from 200 m to 40 km, for women from 200 m to 30 km; on the highway — respectively from 5 to 250 km and from 5 to 75 km; a cross-country — from 10 to 30 km only for men. For races use special bicycles.

Century of page trains respiratory and cardiovascular systems, cultivates physical endurance, promotes improvement of a vestibular mechanism, development of coordination of muscle performance, improvement of functions of internals and a row of systems of an organism. During the driving the bicycle the main loading is necessary hl. obr. on muscles of legs and to a lesser extent on muscles of hands, trunks and necks that shall be considered during the planning of training occupations. During the cycle races function of external respiration sharply increases: lung ventilation reaches 215 l/min, oxygen absorption — more than 5 l/min, a respiration rate — more than 40 in 1 min. Despite increase in ventilation of the lungs during the cycle races, usually there is an oxygen debt which leads to emergence in urine and sweat of nedookislenny decomposition products, to nek-rum to change physical. - chemical composition of blood.

Cycle races make also big impact on blood circulation: pulse becomes frequent to 180 — 200 beats per minute; the minute volume of heart makes more than 20 l, the maximal arterial pressure — 210 mm of mercury., minimum — 0, so-called infinite tone (see. Blood pressure). After the cycle races at participants falling of weight to 2 kg and more is noted. The specified changes are physiological reaction of an organism of the athlete to intensive loading. Extent of changes in an organism at cycle racings depends on intensity of loading, length of a distance, a land relief, a road surfacing, and also fitness of the cyclist. During rest between separate stages of a race fiziol, functions are normalized more fully at well trained bicycle racers; at badly trained athletes the exhaustion increasing from a stage to a stage of a race is noted.

Due to the large volume and intensity of loadings the main requirement to V. of page is the correct creation of trainings. The correct dosing of loading is especially important during the occupations of young men and girls.

Allow healthy teenagers of both sexes from 14 years to occupations; to competitions — since 15 years. Participation of women in competitions in the period of periods is not allowed. At medical examination for the solution of a question of the admission to trainings special attention is paid on a condition of a musculoskeletal system, cardiovascular, respiratory systems, an organ of sight (short-sightedness of average and high degrees is a contraindication for V.'s occupations of page). Contraindications to sports activities — see. Medical control (in physical culture and sport). The state of health of cyclists is defined before and after cycle races of various extent; careful medical examination includes use of functional trials (running on the spot, jumpings up, squats, etc.) and special exercise stresses (veloergometriya). At the trained athletes, unlike unexercised, the respiratory arrhythmia of cordial reductions is well-marked (urezheny pulse rates on a breath and normalization on an exhalation) that testifies to a top functional condition of cardiovascular and respiratory systems of an organism of the athlete. The condition of exhaustion is characterized by decrease in the maximal arterial pressure or increase minimum on 10 — 24 mm of mercury. in the period of loading and at rest, after an exercise stress.

Before multi-day cycle races careful medical examination of participants is carried out and control of their state throughout all race, overseeing by catering services and drink in way, with conditions of rest of racers, timely medical aid at a distance (maintenance by ambulances) is provided.

Food of cyclists during these competitions shall be individual, various, caloric; during the races it is necessary to eat in 1 — 1,5 hour after start, food shall be easily assimilable; duration of a dream — not less than 9 — 10 hours a day.

As indicators of self-checking at V.'s occupations of page it is possible to use measurement of pulse, arterial pressure, force of a brush, body weight.

At disturbance of occupations of V. of page and hygienic requirements to places of trainings, clothes and footwear the athlete can have traumatic damages and diseases: attritions on an inner surface of hips, sprain of the lower extremities, grazes, bruises, fractures of extremities and a clavicle, concussion, a varicosity of legs, a furunculosis of a crotch.

Prevention of traumatism: increase in physical and technical and tactical training of racers, check of operability of the bicycle, the correct selection of clothes, obligatory use of a helmet and cycle gloves, in hot weather — cycle hats.

Walking driving the bicycle is widely available to persons of different age with various physical fitness.

Cyclings and a cycle tourism have great recreational value what is promoted as character physical. exercises during the driving the bicycle, and conditions of their carrying out — fresh air, change of a surrounding situation, etc.

V. the page is included into the GTO modern complex.

See also Sport .

Bibliography Arkhipov E. M and Sedov A. V. Cycle racings on the highway, M., 1968; Bicycle sport, Year-book, M., 1973; Mellenberg G. V., Sedov A. V. and Khvan M. U. Radio tele-metric researches of efficiency of cyclists and skaters, Teor. and prakt. physical. cult., No. 3, page 6, 1970, bibliogr.

Yu. V. Beletsky, N. V. Kublitskaya.